Essay Unit 3 Growth & Heredity Final Exam Review & Study Guide

1150 Words Mar 25th, 2013 5 Pages
11. What is the structure of a DNA molecule? a. What forms the backbone of the DNA molecule? b. What kind of bonds occur between the 3' OH on the 3’ C of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next? b. What forms the “steps of the ladder”? c. What kind of bonds hold the nitrogen bases together? d. What is meant by anti-parallel strands?
12. What is Chargaff’s rule (what binds with what?)
13. How does DNA fold into a chromosome? (the 6 steps)
14. What is a nucleosome?
15. What are histones?
16. What is the difference between chromatin and chromosomes? When do cells use these different forms?
REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, and TRANSLATION
1. What is the difference between REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, and TRANSLATION?
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17. What is the significance of the following: one 2n cell leads to two separate, but identical 2n cells

Meiosis
---Be able to use vocab words to describe what happens in meiosis---
1. What do haploid and diploid mean and what are their representative symbols?
2. What is the difference between somatic and gametic cells?
3. How many chromosomes do humans have in their body cells? In their gametes?
4. How are sexual and asexual reproductions different? List 3 advantages and disadvantages.
5. For what reason do organism use meiosis?
6. What is the significance of the following and when do they occur: tetrad, synapsis, Crossing over, Segregation, Independent assortment?
7. What is the difference between meiosis I and meiosis II?
8. What is the significance of the following: one 2n cell leads to two separate and different n cells, that leads to four separate and different n cells.
9. How is spermatogenesis different from oogenesis ( Include the # of resulting gametes)?
10. What are polar bodies? Why do they form? What happens to them?
11. What is apoptosis?

Mendelian Genetics
1. Who is considered to be the “Father of Genetics”?
2. What was Gregor Mendel’s contribution to our understanding of genetics?
3. What is the relationship between the P1, F1, and F2 generations?
4. What 2 laws did Mendel propose to explain how traits are inherited?
5. When do segregation and independent assortment happen?
6. What is

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