Theories Of Substance Dualism

735 Words 3 Pages
Substance dualism is the perspective that both physical substance and mental substance make up the world and exist independently. This philosophy sees the mind and the body as two separate things. As a result, the mind cannot be explained in terms of the brain. Substance dualism can be explained by the separation of pure mind and pure matter. Reductive physicalism is different than substance dualism because they do not include nonphysical stuff. This perspective views the world as made only of physical stuff. They see the mind as physical because it is composed of cells. When there is a physical change in the brain, that change will cause an alteration in the person’s personality or mood. The three modern views discussed in the essays are evolutionary, neuro-biological, and sociological. Dawkins explains the evolutionary view in terms of genes. He explains that humans will exhibit selfish or altruistic behavior. Selfish behavior often occurs in order to successfully pass on that individual’s genes, which is the main focus point with the evolutionary viewpoint. Natural selection occurs with genes and as a result, people will show selfish behavior in order to achieve survival of the fittest. The second modern view is the neuro-biological theory. Zimmer discusses how humans possess a “self” in their brain. This allows us to differentiate ourselves from others. The neuro-biological view focuses on the brain and how it becomes aware of differences when our predictions

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