The terms Domestic Violence (DV) or Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) are gender-neutral as it is assumed that any gender can be a victim or a perpetrator of abuse. Domestic violence refers to any incidents or pattern of threatening, controlling, coercive behaviour, violence or abuse between adults who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality (United Kingdom Government, 2013). IPV involving intimate partners can, therefore, be described as a subset of DV. According to the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), IPV refers to the acts of physical violence, sexual violence, stalking and psychological aggression, including coercive behaviors, by a current or former intimate partner, i.e. spouse, boyfriend/girlfriend, dating partner or ongoing sexual partner (CDC, 2015). The various types of IPV include:
Physical violence: This involves the infliction of injury or injuries like pushing, shoving, throwing objects, choking or strangling, aggressive hair pulling, punching, burning etc.
Sexual violence: Examples are rape of a victim, forcing a victim to penetrate someone else, non-physically pressured unwanted penetration, unwanted sexual contact etc.
Verbal/Psychological violence: This is the use of verbal and non-verbal communication with the intent to harm another person mentally or emotionally.
Economic Violence: This involves the control of a person’s financial resources, educational and employment…