Essay The Roaring Rate Of The Red Deer
Comparison between the roaring rate of the red deer in Richmond Park and in wildlife
R ed deer males use a deep guttural vocalization (roar) to attract females. Previous studies have correlated high roaring rates to higher reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the influence of living in a limited area such as Richmond Park (RP), with direct human contact in roaring rate of red deer. The roaring rate of three males living in RP were calculated and compared to the rate of six free-ranging males recorded in previous work. Our data shows that, although there is a trend in reduction of red deer’s roaring rate in RP, this difference is not statistically significant. The importance that roaring rates have in avoiding unnecessary energy waste and in attracting females might explain this result.
Vertebrates have different behaviours and characteristics that regulate sexual reproduction. Many of these involve a considerable amount of energy expenditure, such as fights and rapid movements, besides increasing the chances of attracting a potential predator, such as colourful patterns and repetitive vocalizations. However, these attributes are rather common, due to sexual selection, in different group of animals, including tetrapods. In birds and amphibious, vocalization is a relatively common form of communication and a widely used mechanism by males to attract females1, 2. On the other hand, only a few mammalian species exhibit such behaviour3, 4.…