Essay about The Resistance Of Antibiotic Resistance

1844 Words Aug 16th, 2016 null Page
1.2.2 Mechanism of antibiotic resistance
Bacteria may become resistant to various antimicrobial agents through several mechanisms. Major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria includes : (1) modification in target site so the antibiotic cannot recognise the target; (2) enzyme production that will inactivate or modify the drug before its effect; (3) expelling or extruding the antibiotic outside the cell by one or more efflux pumps so the drug is unable to reach the target site to exert its antibacterial action; and (4) alterations in the cell membrane permeability that inhibits the access of drug into the cell (Périchon & Courvalin, 2009; Verraes et al., 2013).
Antimicrobial resistance could be intrinsic or acquired. Intrinsic resistance is an inherent capacity of organisms making them insensitive to all antibiotics, whereas acquired resistance is a result of chromosomal mutation in bacterial genome or acquisition of resistance conferring genetic material from a different source (Périchon & Courvalin, 2009; Sefton, 2002; Tenover, 2006). Some bacteria are intrinsically or naturally resistant to many antimicrobials. This type of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is often due to the absence of target site for the action of antibiotic or in ability of the drug to pass through the cell wall or bacterial membrane for its action. Bacteria, which are sensitive to antimicrobials, may become resistant by mutation in genetic material or acquire new genetic material from…

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