The Mind And Human Consciousness Essay

700 Words Jun 18th, 2015 3 Pages
Prior to the twentieth-century, the mind and human consciousness were the main focus of psychological work and studies, however, during the early twentieth-century, the concept of behaviorism was emphasized and dominated psychology.
The theory of behaviorism was first shown in Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov’s (1927), animal studies, through which he discovered classical conditioning. American psychologist, John B. Watson (1913), was one of the strongest believers in behaviorism; establishing the psychological school of behaviorism, and much of his thinking derived from Pavlov’s work and classical conditioning. Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment (1920) is one of the most controversial and highly unethical experiments conducted; however it proved substantially beneficial to psychologists, and contributed to much of what we know about behaviorism and conditioning today. Furthering the behaviorist perspective, B. F. Skinner (1948), another American psychologist, tested Watson’s theories and discovered the concept of operant conditioning, through the testing of animals in his ‘Skinner Box’.
Behaviorism is an approach to psychology that focuses on the observable characteristics of behavior, since it is believed that behavior can be measured, altered and conditioned, through the use of reward and punishment (Watson, 1913). Furthermore, it is believed that we acquire all behaviors through conditioning, and they are shaped through our responses to environmental stimuli (Watson,…

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