Aboriginal Health In Australia
Racism is not a new phenomenon for human beings, and people suffered from discrimination in the past for centuries. Racism and discrimination have had a significant role in defining the health of Aboriginals whether mentally or physically. The definition of racism as difined by Grosfoguel (2011) is, “a global hierarchy of human superiority and inferiority, politically culturally and economically produced and reproduced for centuries by the institutions of the capitalist, modern/colonial world-system”. There is no doubt that racism can affect the community structure negatively. Recent studies suggest that people who had experienced ill treatment as a result of discrimination between color and race are at risk of physical and psychological diseases. (Bailie, Carson, Chenhall & Dunbar, 2007). In addition, international studies show that there is a relationship between adult illnesses such as depression, anxiety, chronic health conditions and racism (Luke, Paradise, Priest & Stewart, 2011, p. 1). Meanwhile, anti-discrimination laws have been admitted in 2010 by Australian …show more content…
National Kidney Foundation of America 2002(As cited in AIHW) the definition of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is deterioration or shortage of kidney function in human body. Therefore, the level of kidney function can be determined based on the stage of disease, which consist of five stages start with Kidney damage with normal kidney function and end with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).
According to Cass, Cunningham, Snelling, Wang & Hoy (2002) (as cited in AIHW, 2011) the main causes of prevalence rate (CKD) in Aboriginal community are excessive alcohol, and socioeconomic disadvantage, which including measuring of a low birth weight, low income, education, and income. However, registered data on spread of new CKD’s causes in Aboriginal people were different slightly from study to other. Meanwhile, all previous studies reveal kidney disease in Aboriginal peoples more than the rest of Australians at least 2.5 times. (AIHW, 2011; Couzos & Murray