Public Health Indicator Case Study

855 Words 4 Pages
Question 1
a. Public Health Indicator:
A public health indicator can be quantifiable as it is used as a supporting evidence when the health status of a population is been described.
Public health indicator is a summary statistics of which is directly related to and which facilitate concise, comprehensive and balanced judgements about the condition of a major part of health or the progression towards achieving a healthier society. An indicator is known to simply measure hence it is a measure of interest that is used for indication of some concept, construct or process that cannot be measured directly.
There are several criteria for selecting an indicator but the application of any criteria depends on the purpose to which it is to be used.
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Question 2
a. The use of ‘STEPS’ in NCD surveillance:
The WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) of NCDs is based on sequential levels of surveillance of different aspects of non-communicable diseases, allowing flexibility and integration at each step by maintaining standardized questionnaires and protocols to ensure comparability over time and across locations(World Health Organization, 2003) i.e. It encourages disseminating data in WHO member countries.
By using the same standardized questions and protocols, different countries can use STEPS information for monitoring trends within-country, for making comparisons across countries. Using the STEPS approach, collection of important and useful information in small amount on a continuing and regular basis is made possible.
Currently, there are two STEPS surveillance systems, they are; the STEPwise approach to risk factor surveillance and the STEPwise approach to Stroke
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NCD surveillance in South Africa
 South Africa has many elements that can be developed further into a strategic surveillance system for NCDs. The South African Demographic and Health Survey (SADHS) included information on self-reported chronic conditions as well as their risk factors. Importantly it measured blood pressure, anthropometry and lung function, providing reliable information about population health. The survey was designed to use hypertension and lung disease as sentinel conditions for assessing chronic diseases and their management.
 The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is collecting critical data on population health and the risk factors for NCDs.
 Notwithstanding, a comprehensive surveillance system needs to be developed for NCDs. It must include monitoring the exposures that lead to NCDS (unhealthy lifestyles and risk factors including among young people),
 Monitoring health outcomes (illness and cause specific mortality) as well as the health system response (capacity, access to interventions and quality of

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