The Causes And Phases Of The Berlin Crisis

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After the Second World War, Germany was divided into four zones. “These occupation zones had been drawn during the war by the European Advisory Commission” (Maddox 1320) the four zones were; the American Zone of Occupation, the British Zone, French Zone and the Soviet Zone. Frankfurt was under the control of the Americans, Bad Oeynhausen under the control of the British, Baden-Baden under French control and East Berlin under Soviet control. With Germany being divided in four, issues began to develop between the different zones on how to rule and rebuild Germany, although “the American member held the goofy belief that he could gain Soviet trust and cooperation through personal friendliness” (Maddox 1321). In 1948 one of the first major international …show more content…
This was the phase that the first Soviet time limit was set, of six months, and its withdrawal after Mr. Macmillan’s visit in Moscow (Barker 62). “The second phase was the Foreign Ministers’ Conference in Geneva in the summer of 1959 – the only serious and detailed attempt to negotiate a Berlin agreement” (Barker 62). From September 1959 to May 1960 was the third phase, in which the two leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union, Khrushchev and Eisenhower, met at Camp David. They talked but the atmosphere grew colder and colder, and eventually ended it in the U2 incident. The Summit was a complete disaster (Barker 62). The fourth phase was an intermediate period in which Khrushchev waited for the change of presidents in the White House, and for President Kennedy to establish himself as commander in chief (Barker 62). The fifth and last phase began in June 1961 with the Vienna Summit, where Khrushchev and Kennedy met each other, and where Khrushchev made a threat of unilateral action over Berlin. Consequently, the Soviets built the Berlin Wall in East Germany in August. This phase constituted of mutual frustration, which sometimes was dangerous because of local tensions in Berlin, which resulted in the building of the Berlin Wall (Barker 62). Realists would say that the dominant process of interaction during the build up of the Berlin Crisis is competition, which is completely true. The United States sought power to prevent Berlin from falling into the hands of communism, and the Soviet Union on the other hand wanted to dominate Eastern Europe, starting with Berlin (Nye and Welch

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