Social Determinants Of Health, Health Care Systems And Living Environments

1641 Words Oct 23rd, 2016 7 Pages
Worldwide, in 2014, mother to child transmission (MTCT) accounted for 15% of newly infected Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnoses, with an estimated 220,000 infants acquiring HIV (United Nations Children’s Fund [UNICEF], 2015). In Uganda during 2014, an estimated 9,500 children were infected via MTCT, these figures may be as high as 21,000 children (UNICEF, 2015). Comparatively, Australian rates of MTCT stand at an average of one child per year, notably a percentage of 1% in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population and 0% in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population (The Kirby Institute, 2014). HIV has impacted both Uganda and Australia in comparatively different respects. There are several social determinants of health that influence the disparity in these figures, decidedly, those of economics, health care systems and living environments. Impacting the availability of treatments to prevent infection of infants during the perinatal period.
Beginning in 2013, the World Health Organization implemented guidelines for treating and preventing HIV infection, with a focus on MTCT, and the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant mothers and neonates (WHO, 2016). Treatment utilising the guidelines, and as advised by the previous Global Plan (UNAIDS, 2011) has seen an impressive 35% reduction in newly infected people worldwide since 2000 – 2014 (WHO, 2015). Whilst these figures present an overall improvement in HIV infection worldwide,…

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