Cause Of Differences

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Many sociologists argue that “factors and processes within school are the main cause of difference” These factors include gender, class and ethnicity. All of these things can lead to certain stereotypes and labels being forced upon pupils. The idea that Teachers have certain expectations of different social and ethnic groups means that self-fulfilling prophecy can lead to pupils living out positive and negative labels.
The role of gender in educational achievement is that in past times it has been that boys have achieved less than girls in school, this could be that boys have a history of ‘laddish’ behaviour and have had a negative attitude to learning. This had also led to teachers expectations of ‘lads’ to be low which has caused negative stereotypes and labels. All of these things have in turn caused many anti-school subcultures. Jackson did a study about how this ‘laddish’ behaviour is now being seen in some girls which could in fact mean that it is not only boys that have these negative labels but also girls. Another factor that may influence the achievement of girls is that girls now have a
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The differences in class can lead to many home disadvantages such as material deprivation which means that students do not have enough money for resources such as private tutors, laptops, trips or uniforms; this will give them a disadvantage compared to middle class students. Working class students may also have other responsibilities to attend to such as looking after siblings or even disabled parents; this means that they do not have as much time to spend on studying. Parent’s attitudes towards school and education can also prove to be an impact, if a parent has a negative attitude to school and learning then the child will not have as much pressure or ambition to do as well. This idea of parent expectations links closely with ethnicity and how different ethnic groups view

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