Renals Essay

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Chronic kidney diseaseFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Classification and external resources

Uremic frost on the forehead and scalp of a young man who presented with complaints of chronic anorexia and fatigue with blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels of approximately 100 and 50 mg/dL respectively.
ICD-10 N18
ICD-9 585.9 585.1-585.5 403
DiseasesDB 11288
MedlinePlus 000471 eMedicine article/238798
MeSH D007676

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease (CRD), is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are non-specific, and might include feeling generally
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Stage 5 CKD is often called end stage renal disease (ESRD), end stage renal failure (ESRF), or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is synonymous with the now outdated terms chronic kidney failure (CKF) or chronic renal failure (CRF).[1]

There is no specific treatment unequivocally shown to slow the worsening of chronic kidney disease. If there is an underlying cause to CKD, such as vasculitis, this may be treated directly to slow the damage. In more advanced stages, treatments may be required for anemia and bone disease. Severe CKD requires renal replacement therapy, which may involve a form of dialysis, but ideally constitutes a kidney transplant.[1]

Contents [hide]
1 Signs and symptoms
2 Causes
3 Diagnosis
3.1 Stages
3.2 NDD-CKD vs. ESRD
4 Screening
5 Treatment
6 Prognosis
6.1 Cancer risk
7 Epidemiology
8 Organizations
9 References
10 External links

Signs and symptoms[edit]CKD is initially without specific symptoms and is generally only detected as an increase in serum creatinine or protein in the urine. As the kidney function decreases:

Blood pressure is increased due to fluid overload and production of vasoactive hormones created by the kidney via the RAS (renin-angiotensin system), increasing one's

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