# Reliability Statistics: Cronbach's Alpha N Of Items?

Decent Essays
4.0 Analysis & Discussion
4.1 Reliability & Validity:

Case Processing Summary N %
Cases Valid 18 94.7 Excluded 1 5.3 Total 19 100.0
a. List wise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach 's Alpha N of Items
.887 34

The questionnaire was adapted from previously done research work of Pappu et al. (2011), therefore, the questionnaire was considered rational and valid. The reliability of the questionnaire was checked by conducting a pilot test. The Cronbach alpha of 0.887 that is greater than 0.6, proposed that the questionnaire is significantly reliable.
4.2 Demographics:

Gender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Female 145 37.8 37.8 37.8 Male 239 62.2 62.2 100.0 Total 384 100.0 100.0
Predictors: (Constant), Trustworthiness, Attractiveness, Popularity, Expertise
b. Dependent Variable: Brand Credibility

The significance value of Anova in the above mentioned table is 0.00 that is less than 0.05 indicating that the model is strong and meaningful.

F-Value
As the F-Value is 74.373, it represents that regression line is substantially predicting the brand credibility

Model Summary

Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .663a .440 .434 .48881
a. Predictors: (Constant), Trustworthiness, Attractiveness, Popularity, Expertise

The adjusted R2 is 43.4%, signifying that in the presence of all four independent variables the brand credibility will be affected by around 43% and remaining 57% missing impact belongs to the constructs that are still to be included and tested in the model.

H6:
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 1.218 .158 7.716 .000 Popularity .100 .030 .151 3.313 .001 Attractiveness -.029 .038 -.035 -.766 .444 Expertise .512 .046 .535 11.098 .000 Trustworthiness .114 .040 .125 2.832 .005
a. Dependent Variable: Brand
The F-Value of 74.373 is representing that the model is significant and the four independent variables ie. Attractiveness, popularity, trustworthiness and expertise are causing 43.4% variation in brand credibility and the residual 57% impact is missing, which shows there is a need to test other variables that are not established in the model and can be tested in future researches.
As the value of significance for Attractiveness is 0.44 that is greater than 0.05 specifies that the attractiveness has no significant effect on brand credibility. Therefore, attractiveness will not be a part of regression line.
The value of significance for popularity is 0.001 that is less than 0.05 representing a major impact on brand credibility, the un-standardized beta shows that 1% increase in popularity of endorser will create 10% variation in brand credibility.
The value of significance for trustworthiness is 0.005 that is less than 0.05 signifying a considerable impact of trustworthiness of an endorser on brand credibility, therefore the brands intending to increase their brand credibility need to hire trustworthy endorsers, 1% increase in trustworthiness creates 11.4% variation in brand

## Related Documents

• Superior Essays

The target population that he authors wanted to study was children in Elementary School. The population from which the sample was taken represented the appropriate people because the authors studied children from fourth through sixth grade (elementary school). The average age of children who participated was 10 years, and 26% of them were from public schools, 26% from a public school, and 7% from a parochial school. The schools indicated that 60% of children were Black, 26% were White, and 14% were from other ethnicities. They also measured children’s teachers to analyze participant’s emotion regulation.…

• 1394 Words
• 6 Pages
Superior Essays
• Improved Essays

The purpose of creating this scientific investigation was to see which type of shoe would kick a soccer ball the furthest. The hypothesis for this project was, “If the type of shoe affects the ball’s distance traveled when kicked, then the cleat will kick the ball the furthest.” The independent variable was the type of shoe. The dependent variable was the distance the ball traveled. The way the responding or dependent variable was measured was the distance the ball has traveled.…

• 230 Words
• 1 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

Integration of Faith: Character Abraham Lincoln stated, “Character is like a tree and reputation like a shadow. The shadow is what we think of it; the tree is the real thing”. The representation that character plays in marketing is paramount as it directly relates to the credibility of an organization. Corporate trustworthiness is defined as “the extent to which a company is seen as motivated to be honest, dependable, and sensitive to consumer needs” (Keller & Kotler, 2012).…

• 596 Words
• 3 Pages
Improved Essays
• Decent Essays

Annotated Bibliography Baker, A. M., Donthu, N., & Kumar, V. (2016). Investigating how word-of-mouth conversations about brands influence purchase and retransmissin intentions. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(2), 225-239. doi:10.1509/jmr.14.0099 In this article, the authors point out the valence, channel, and social tie strength of a word of mouth conversation. They go throughout their paper explaining in detail about word of mouth.…

• 947 Words
• 4 Pages
Decent Essays
• Decent Essays

Credibility is extremely important in any business. If you do not have credibility you may have initial success, however you will not maintain a loyal customer base. The formula for credibility is having favorable competence, caring, and character (Cardon, 2013). If we are able to show the formula of credibility in all aspects of business, we will be able to maintain a successful business and customer base. First of all, you do have to show that you have a high level of competence.…

• 460 Words
• 2 Pages
Decent Essays
• Improved Essays

Understanding Why Things Catch On Berger in his book “Contagious: Why Things Catch On” explains how a product can be made popular. He explains the ideas and facts that make a product more favored than another similar one. In real life especially in the marketing sector, some brands, rumors and stories about some products are contagious. This infectious ability tends to boost how that product finds its way into the advertising sector but not because of the perfect advertising strategies the company or the producer may have applied. In the book, Berger tries to make the reader understand how things can go viral.…

• 1203 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Great Essays

consumers’ attitudes toward credibility of health products ads | |Your profession: |Total | | |Physician |Other |Physician | |Do you find these ads |Yes |14 |16 |30 | |credible? | | | | | | |No |27 |25 |52 | |Total |41 |41 |82 | (Table 4) Chi-Square Tests | |Value |df |Asymp. Sig.…

• 2791 Words
• 12 Pages
Great Essays
• Decent Essays

What do celebrity endorsers bring to a brand that non-celebrity endorsers fail to bring? Atkin and Block (1983) found that celebrity endorsers consistently produce more favorable impacts. Their findings showed that celebrity endorsers were viewed as significantly more trustworthy and competent and slightly more attractive than non-celebrity endorsers. In addition, they found that purchase intention and brand evaluation were greater for advertisements featuring celebrity endorsers than for those without. In a study that examined the moderating role of involvement between central and peripheral routes to advertising effectiveness, Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann (1983) found that people were more likely to favor products endorsed by celebrity endorsers.…

• 105 Words
• 1 Pages
Decent Essays
• Decent Essays

Consumers will have a higher purchase intention with a familiar brand. Likewise, if a product has higher brand awareness it will have a higher market share and a better quality evaluation. A well-known brand will have a higher purchase intention than a less well-known brand. Garretson and Clow suggest that perceived quality will influence consumer purchase intention, and Monore indicates that perceived quality will positively influence purchase intention through perceived…

• 70 Words
• 1 Pages
Decent Essays
• Improved Essays

Amidst living in a commodity culture and consumer society where it is filled with mass production of goods and uncountable sectors of brands, not only consumers have to struggle to make choice between different options of brands, but also brands have to constantly find ways to make their name known among competitors and become a household brand that consumers will choose its products over the other. Thus, marketers and advertisers take advantage of the new age of social media to create brand identity, which comprises the characteristics and attributes of the brand that the company wishes to create and maintain (Phillips, McQuarrie, and Griffin 1). Nonetheless, brand identity often encloses ideological values, which is a shared set of values and beliefs to convey the way things are and the way things should be. A brand then is no longer merely selling products, but it is selling the symbolic values that are embedded in the advertising images.…

• 1239 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

To assess the overall model fit of the measurement model, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. The measurement properties resulted from CFA are summarized in Table 3. In this study, the chi-square statistic indicated the overall model was not fit very well (x^2 = 527.397, p < .001). However, The value of the normed chi-square static to sample size, showed that the model fit the data well with x^2/df at 2.028, which was lower than the recommended threshold of 3. In addition, the RMSEA value is .057 and CFI value is .955 in our model.…

• 429 Words
• 2 Pages
Improved Essays
• Decent Essays

CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1: Relationship between Achievement Motivation and Aggression among Inter Collegiate Hockey Players Variable N M SD df r Achievement Motivation 100 26.28 5.72 98 -0.09 Vs. Aggression 11.15 2.58 rtab (98) = 0.19 It is apparent from the table 1 that obtained value of correlation coefficient (-0.09) is less than the tabulated value of correlation coefficient (0.19).…

• 895 Words
• 4 Pages
Decent Essays
• Improved Essays

DISSERTATION CRITIQUE 1. Use APA format to cite the dissertation that you reviewed. Jeong, H. W. G. (2010). Teachers ' perceptions regarding gifted and talented early childhood Students (Three to eight years of age)…

• 1200 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

Coke 's Pros. Coca Cola has received a lot of supports from consumers from the day it was introduced until now. Thank to the strong brand image and powerful advertisements and marketing capability, Coke is always the first choice for consumers. Moreover, Coke has a long history where everyone can trust the product. There are many reasons why so many people like drinking coke.…

• 1002 Words
• 5 Pages
Improved Essays
• Improved Essays

repurchase or otherwise continue using the brand and can be established by repeated buying of a product or service or other positive behaviours such as word of mouth advocacy (Dick and Kunal, 1994). Brand loyalty is more than simple repurchasing, however, customers may repurchase a brand due to situational constraints (such as vendor lock-in), a lack of possible alternatives, or out of convenience (Jones et al., 2002). Such loyalty is referred to as "spurious loyalty". True brand loyalty exists when customers have a high comparative attitude toward the brand which is then exhibited through repurchase behavior (Reichheld and Earl, 1990), (Reichheld, 1993). A second dimension, however, is whether the customer is committed to the brand.…

• 1599 Words
• 7 Pages
Improved Essays