Pyelonephritis Case Study

Leory is a 70 year old man, presented to the clinic with severe confusion, increased impaired judgement, and increasing repetitiousness and inconsistencies in his usual behavior. His physical exam reveals an increased respiratory rate, slight fever and costovertebral angle tenderness on his right side.
Acute pyelonephritis: Pyelonephritis is an acute urological condition that cause infection on one or both kidneys. It is a lower urinary tract infection that ascended to the pelvis of the kidney. Severe cases of pyelonephritis can cause systemic sepsis, pyonephrosis, renal failure, multisystem failure and death. In most cases, the infection is caused by gram-negative bacteria, mostly Escherichia coli, which is transmitted from anal and perianal
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Most often, kidney stone are diagnosed in older adults but, it can occur at any age. A recent study reported that the incidence of kidney stones are increased to 16 percent in the United States between 1997 and 2012, particularly among adolescents, females and African Americans. Early recognition and prompt treatment is important in reducing or preventing the complications related to kidney stones (Goldstein & Goldfarb, 2017). Kidney stones can be formed of various substances that dissolved in the urine, such as calcium, uric acid, oxalate and cystine. Kidney stones form when there is an imbalance between the concentration of these substances and the chemicals in the urine that usually keep the substances dissolved. Most often, stones are small and able to pass through the urinary system without causing any symptoms. However, bigger stones can lodge anywhere in the urinary tract and block the flow of urine and can cause severe pain. The symptoms of kidney stone includes, severe pain that move from the back and sides to the groin, hematuria, dysuria, increased frequency, nausea and vomiting (Punnoose, Golub, & Lynm, …show more content…
It affects about ten percent of men of all ages, but mostly those in their 40s. Prostatitis has several forms. The most common forms include a nonbacterial inflammation that cause pelvic pain is called chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The less common form is an acute bacterial infection that last for several days and the least common is a chronic bacterial infection that recurs and may last for weeks or months. The cause of nonbacterial prostatitis is unknown, but may be related to a previous infection with a bacteria or virus. Bacterial prostatitis is caused by bacteria that enter in the bladder or urethra and infect the prostate. The symptoms of prostatitis include persistent pain between the scrotum and rectum that may felt in the groin and genitals. The pain may also occur with urination and often accompanied by urinary urgency and frequency and painful ejaculation. The acute bacterial prostatitis can cause fever, chills, and flu like symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Chronic bacterial prostatitis can result in recurrent urinary tract infections (Pluta, Lynm, & Golub,

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