Kidney Stone Lab Report

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Introduction:
Kidney stones, also known as renal lithiasis, are a common urinary tract disorder that often results from concentrated crystallized minerals in the urine. These minerals can include anything from calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, to uric acid. Since the kidney stone has to travel through the urethra, it can be extremely painful depending on the size and shape. There are however many preventative actions to combat the formation of kidney stones. Most people have their own home remedies that have stemmed from generations of cultural beliefs, but how practical can a home remedy be? The goal of this experiment was to create some sort of scientific evidence that would perhaps support a home remedy. In lab, the synthetic kidney stones
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We planned on making a five-gram sample for both calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate. Stoichiometry was necessary to determine the amount of reactants needed for the kidney stones. Calcium phosphate had a balanced equation of Ca (NO3) 2 (aq) + NaPO4 (aq) ⇌ Ca3 (PO4) 2 (s) + 2 Na (NO3) (aq). The balanced equation of calcium oxalate was Ca (NO3) 2 (aq) + Na2C2O4 (aq) ⇌ CaC2O4 (s) + 2 Na (NO3) 2. To achieve equilibrium for calcium phosphate, a 7.11 g Ca (NO3) 2 solution was mixed with a solution of 5.29 g Na3PO4 to create Ca3 (PO4) 2. Calcium oxalate was formed using a mixture of 6.4 g Ca (NO3) 2 with 5.23 g Na2C2O4 to form Na (NO3) 2. All solutions were mixed using distilled water. To filter out precipitates from the desired solution, they had to be poured over a beaker with filter paper being sucked by a vacuum. After the liquid was filtered, it was then poured into several different tubes and then placed in a centrifuge. The centrifuge caused the liquid to become more of a gel like substance, which was then placed in the oven to remove any excess liquid. The dried product was then placed in a plastic cup for safe keeping until the next …show more content…
Discussion (Week 1): The goal of week 1 was to take choose chemicals and create a precipitate. We had to calculate the precipitate for both calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate to decide the necessary amounts to use for each chemical. After determining the amounts needed by balancing the equations, we correctly formed the precipitates to our desired quantities. The centrifuge separated the precipitate from the desired chemical, which was then heated in the oven to leave the synthetic kidney stones to be used in week 2.

Discussion (Week 2): During Week 2, we sought out to determine if our household remedies of Lemon Juice and Apple Cider Vinegar could successfully dissolve our calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate kidney stones. We also attempted to find the Ksp of our solutions and compare them to data found on the Internet. Since the apple cider vinegar did not give us any results for the experiment, we had to rely solely on the lemon juice. Despite our best efforts, we could not find anything on the Internet that had data on the Ksp value of calcium phosphate in a lemon juice solution. To determine the solubility of the calcium phosphate, we used an ICE table and from there were able to calculate solubility for both NaPO4 and CA (NO3)

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