Pyelonephritis Case Study

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According to Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper, Bucher, and Camera (2014), pyelonephritis is defined as inflammation of the renal parenchyma, collecting system, and renal pelvis. Pyelonephritis can be categorized as acute or chronic. Acute pyelonephritis, the more common type, usually results from colonization and infection of the lower urinary tract that if left untreated can ascend through the urethral route and infect the kidneys (Lewis et al., 2014). Chronic pyelonephritis occurs when the kidneys are frequently infected causing the kidneys to become small, atrophic, and loose function from all the scarring (Lewis et al., 2014). Also, with chronic pyelonephritis the extent of the scarring depends on the amount of past infections and how severe …show more content…
Also, there are 15-17 cases per 10,000 women and 3-4 cases per 10,000 men. Out of the population of those infected with pyelonephritis most of the cases involve the older population, more specifically those over the age of 66 (Fulop, 2014). A reason the older populations are at a greater risk for developing pyelonephritis is because they may not be as diligent or unable to perform proper perineal care daily due to becoming weaker. Also with aging there is a decline in the immune response due to the phenomenon called immunosenescence, which is not fully known, all these add to the increased risk of developing pyelonephritis (Lewis et al., …show more content…
Other potential complications that can follow acute pyelonephritis can range from developing abscesses due to the bacteria forming pockets on the kidneys, which can be fatal if they break off and spread to other parts of the body. Septic shock caused by urosepsis is a systemic infection that is the result of unresolved bacteria that could lead to death (Lewis et al., 2014). More complications can range from acute respiratory distress syndrome, recurrent or chronic pyelonephritis, and to chronic kidney disease that can be a factor in scarring that is caused by recurrent infections. Renal scars that lead to chronic kidney disease are generally caused when there is already something abnormal about the anatomic or functional urinary tract. In this case acute pyelonephritis can quickly lead to chronic kidney disease. Also if a patient already has chronic kidney disease and develops acute pyelonephritis the infection will increase in severity (Copstead &Banasik, 2013). Once a person develops chronic pyelonephritis their kidneys become little, atrophic, and shrink making the kidneys loose function due to the scarring (Lewis et al., 2014). When the kidneys have scars not only does it lead to chronic kidney disease but also high blood pressures and eventually kidney failure (National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, 2012). Unfortunately, chronic

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