Psychology Study Guide Chapter 7 Essay

1837 Words Oct 19th, 2013 8 Pages
Psychology
Chapter 7 P.277-312
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Cognition: mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining and using knowledge
Thinking is involved in all conscious mental activity, whether it is acquiring new knowledge, remembering, planning ahead, or day dreaming. Involves manipulating mental representations of info
Thinking involves the manipulation of two forms; Mental images and concepts
Mental Images
Mental images: mental representation of objects or events that are not physically present
^ how we manipulate visual images and focus on visual images
Sometimes thinking involves manipulation of mental images
Concepts
Concepts: mental category we have formed to group objects, events, or situations that
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Estimate an events likelihood by comparing how similar its essential features are to our prototype of the event.
Prototype most typical example of an object or event
The Characteristics of Language
Purpose of language is to communicate, to express meaningful information in a way that can be understood by others
Language requires symbols- can be sounds, written words, sign language, formalized gestures
Language is very flexible
Every language has its own unique syntax or set of rules for combining words
Important characteristic of language-generative(generate an infinite number of new and different phases and sentences)
Displacement- communicate meaningfully about ideas, objects and activities that are not physically present.
The Bilingual Mind: Are two languages better than one?
Bilingualism: fluency in two or more languages, is the norm
Balanced proficiency: when speakers are equally proficient in two languages
Alzheimer’s disease/dementia: symptoms include deterioration in memory and other cognitive functions
Animal Communication and Cognition
Animal Cognition: reflects an active area of psychological research
Intelligence: as the global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment
Alfred Binet
Alfred Binet: develop procedures to identify students who might require special help
Binet devised a series of tests to measure different mental abilities

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