Pollution Prevention Essay

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Register to read the introduction… 98th percentile calculated from the mean values per hour or per period of less than an hour taken throughout the year. b. Arithmetic mean. c. Not to be exceeded more than once a month. Only a short-term exposure limit has been suggested. Sources: European Community 1985 (EU); United States 1992, 40 CFR, Part 60; WHO 1977, 1987.


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In the interim, countries should set ambient standards for nitrogen dioxide that take into account the benefits to human health and to sensitive ecosystems of reducing exposure to nitrogen dioxide; the concentration levels achievable by pollution prevention and control measures; and the costs involved in meeting the standards. In adopting new ambient air quality standards, countries should set appropriate phase-in periods during which districts or municipalities that do not meet the new standards are expected and will be assisted to attain these standards. Where there are large differences between the costs and benefits of meeting air quality standards, it may be appropriate to establish area-specific ambient standards case by case. Prior to carrying out an environmental assessment (EA), a trigger value for the annual average concentrations of nitrogen oxides should be agreed on by the country and the World Bank Group. Countries may wish to adopt EU, USEPA, or WHO guidelines or standards as their trigger values. The trigger value should be equal to or lower than the country’s ambient standard. The trigger value is not an ambient air quality standard but simply a threshold. If, as a result of the project, the trigger value is predicted to be exceeded in the area affected by the project, the EA should seek mitigation alternatives on a regional or sectoral basis. The World Bank Group will classify airsheds as moderately degraded if concentration levels are above 100 µg/m3 annual average or if the 98th percentile of 24-hour mean values over a period of one year is estimated to exceed 150 µg/m3 of nitrogen oxides. Airsheds will be classified as having poor air quality with respect to nitrogen dioxide if the 95th percentile of 24-hour mean values of nitrogen dioxide for the airshed over a period of one year is estimated to exceed 150

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