Essay on Parkinson 's Disease, Gait, And Gait

2392 Words Nov 22nd, 2016 10 Pages
This paper is a literature review of Parkinson’s disease, gait, the abnormalities of gait in patients with Parkinson’s, how the fear of falling affects these patients, and the treatment and rehabilitation of gait. After having a background in what Parkinson’s disease is and what normal gait looks like, the abnormalities, such as freezing of gait, can be discussed. A number of different treatment plans are covered in this paper, but the main rehabilitation plans deal with cognitive approaches and cueing.
Parkinson’s disease affects one to one and a half million people in the United States. This is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the United States behind Alzheimer’s disease (Earhart & Williams, 2012). Parkinson’s disease is a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine that causes a disruption in critical pathways that controls muscle tone in extremities, posture, voluntary movement, balance, and gait (Schub & Caple, 2016). The degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons occurs in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia is responsible for the internal cueing of rhythmic movement during gait, and in other well-learned movements that require little thought (Earhart & Williams, 2012). This neurodegenerative disease greatly affects the elder population and is a major cause of disability for this age group (Walton, Lewis, Shine, Mowszowski & Naismith, 2014). The average age for the onset of Parkinson’s is fifty to sixty years old and affects three men for every two…

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