Organizations as political systems: the managerial bias in Critical Perspective

2129 Words Oct 9th, 2013 9 Pages
Abstract Number 1 :
Organizations as political systems: the managerial bias in Critical Perspective
A number of approaches are offered for organizational science to solve the problem regarding organizational gap between theory and practice. The rational model can be considered as a dominant model on organizational science among the others with the purpose of defining organization as instruments for attaining goals instead of dealing with problems .Furthermore, objectives are defined in favour of organization progress regardless of employees’ ideas in such a model. It is mainly assumed that involved individuals in the organisation’s activities agree reasonably with its major purposes. The main task of managers are
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Based on the article details, democracy is remarkably connected to free market generally. In addition, welfare state is a direct threat to individual initiative (Wildavsky&Dake,1990, p. 155). As a result, the study demonstrate that the most effective social method regarding risk understanding is cultural theory that shows predict of risk perceptions possibility and preferences related to people variaties concerning cultural discrimination. Based on article details, the study focus on expending scope of how to understand the risk perception by asking various questions. In addition, Management to create a data to make comparisons of rival theories (Wildavsky & Dake, 1990, p. 157).
Example
When I was working in an international company with multicultural members, I guessed risk taking or the definition of risk is almost different among all members ,but It was not .In fact, there was a kind of similarities among people of the same culture.For instance, german team members were so conservative in a design process and mainly focused on details.On the other hand, the Asian team members were not as exact as the mentioned members. As a result, risk perception can be related to cultures. Based on my experience, some individuals of the same background and nationality have the same thinking method. It could be considered that similar cultures affect people thinking methods.

Abstract 3 Measuring and managing for team performance: Emerging

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