Nanoscale Optics Essay

5784 Words Oct 27th, 2011 24 Pages
Traditional and new simulation techniques for nanoscale optics and photonics a I. Tsukerman*a, F. Čajkoa, A.P. Sokolovb Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, The University of Akron, OH 44325-3904, USA b Department of Polymer Science, The University of Akron, OH 44325-3909, USA

Several classes of computational methods are available for computer simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering at optical frequencies: Discrete Dipole Approximation, the T-matrix − Extended Boundary Condition methods, the Multiple Multipole Method, Finite Difference (FD) and Finite Element (FE) methods in the time and frequency domain, and others. The paper briefly reviews the relative advantages and disadvantages of
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Simulation examples are given in Section 4 and include plasmon particles and resonances and wave propagation in a photonic crystal. Electromagnetic formulations used throughout the paper are those of classical electrodynamics in the frequency domain, with equivalent material parameters − permittivity and permeability (in general, complex). Time-domain versions of the computational methods do exist but are not discussed here. Although the use of effective material parameters has its limitations, the effective permittivity does adequately represent the key physical effects in many important cases, possibly with adjusted material parameters [17], [32], [35]. Our ultimate goal is to assemble a set of complementary simulation tools for comprehensive analysis and crossvalidation of results. Such cross-validation is critical for several reasons: (i) wave propagation and scattering problems are quite complex, and even more so around the resonance conditions; (ii) our intuition is lacking and often cannot provide even qualitative guidance; (iii) accurate comparison with measurements is extremely difficult on the nanoscale. The traditional methods we use include Finite Element (FE) and Finite Difference (FD) analysis, the Discrete-Dipole Method (with the DDSCAT code by Draine & Flatau [8], [9]), and multipole-multicenter expansions (with or without the T-matrix flavor [25]). In addition to the conventional techniques, one of the authors has

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