Motivational Theory and Techniques Used Within Organizations Essay

2295 Words Apr 13th, 2007 10 Pages
Literature Review

Motivational Theory and Techniques used within organizations.

Student: Ronan Manning

Course: M.App.Sc. In Operations and Quality Management (Part-time)

Subject: Research Reports – Report No. 2

Submitted To: Dr. David O'Sullivan Industrial Engineering Department

Submission Date: 14th March 2007

This literature review explores the concept of motivation, different motivational theories and details some of the motivational tools used within business organizations on a macro level. Motivation theories and techniques are widely used both within normal every day life and the corporate environment. Managers now understand the importance and effects of motivation on their employees in
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The rewards can be something as minor as a smiley face to something major like fame or fortune. For example, extrinsically motivated people who dislikes math may work hard on a math equation because want the reward for completing it. In the case of a student, the reward would be a good grade on an assignment or in the class. Extrinsic motivation does not mean, however, that a person will not get any pleasure from working on or completing a task.
People in general have different wants, part of what a theory of motivation tries to do is explaining and predicts who has which wants. Many theories posit a hierarchy of needs, in which the needs at the bottom are the most urgent and need to be satisfied before attention can be paid to the others. Strategies used to influence employee loyalty can be intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation.

2. Motivation Theory
The advent of the industrialized age forced many organizations and companies to study what motivates their employees in an attempt to increase productivity. It was believed that money was a key motivational factor in driving employee performance. In later studies conducted other factors besides money where found to have a greater effect on employees in relation to their attitude and work ethic (Linder, 1998). There are two different categories of motivation theories such as content theories, and process theories.


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