Membrane fusion is a function of cell division and cell growth. The machinery used in membrane fusion is also a component of memory and learning. SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors) proteins function in membrane fusion. They also ensure specificity in regulating membrane docking and fusion in exocytosis process and at the pre-synaptic plasma membrane. There are questions regarding how SNARE proteins specificity is enacted and controlled.
Exocytosis requires two families of proteins, Rabs and SNAREs. While Rabs help vesicles dock onto the membrane, SNAREs promote the membrane to fuse. During exocytosis, Ca2+ increases intracellularly, which acts as a signal to calcium sensor …show more content…
What significant progress has been made in the past three years in understanding of the mechanism of SNARE function?
2. What are the biochemical, structural, and biophysical properties of SNAREs?
3. What is the general function of SNARE and SM proteins in universal fusion?
4. What are the complexes and binding partners of SNAREs?
Molecules in eukaryotic cells have to be delivered using their required intracellular destination. The delivery process should not be interfered with the structure of the cellular compartment. This requires vesicles to bud and be transported from the intracellular donor organelle to an acceptor organelle. In the process, there is membrane fusion especially during the process of mitosis and cell growth. Within the nervous system, the fusion of the membrane is a significant step during the transmission of chemical at the …show more content…
Further discovery of the SNARE was associated with the yeast proteins required for secretory function. Initially, SNAREs were divided into two categories: v-SNARES and t-SNAREs. The categorization of the SNAREs follows their vesicle localization. Currently, they have been reclassified as R-SNAREs or Q-SNAREs following their structures. Most researchers have proposed SNARE proteins to determine the fusion events of all intracellular membrane. Currently, over 30- SNARE exists in the mammalian cells. Individual SNARE family is located in a subcellular compartment. SNAREs have the capability of encoding some aspects of the membrane transport; however, the mechanism for achieving the specificity is still controversial. Nevertheless, research shows that SNARE proteins have the ability to interact with each other to produce a force required to fuse the lipid bilayers.
SNARE and SM proteins are the two major components that are significant in the fusion machinery of the intracellular membrane. The SM proteins usually bind to direct the fusogenic action to the trans-SNARE complexes. Membrane fusion is aided by the combination of SM proteins and SNARE. The idea is to ensure specificity. Understanding the concept of SNARE helps in revealing some evidence of the fusion of