1. ‘Individualism’ and ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ are the two main dimensions proposed by Hofstede which are mentioned in the text as influential factors in international collaboration. The text gives scores of the UK USA and Germany and Japan on these dimensions to illustrate the differences.
a) Look up the scores of these same countries on the remaining cultural dimensions on www.geert-hofstede.com | Power Distance | Individualism | Masculinity/Femininity | Uncertainity Avoidance | Long term orientation | US | 40 - Low which means equality and managers are accessible | 91 - Highly individualistic, look after themselves and close ones; are open and self-reliant | 62 - Masculine society, strive to be the best; talk freely
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As a result of the taboo on sexuality in many cultures, particularly masculine ones, and because of the obvious gender generalizations implied by Hofstede's terminology, this dimension is often renamed by users of Hofstede's work, e.g. to Quantity of Life vs. Quality of Life. * Long term orientation (LTO), vs. short term orientation: First called "Confucian dynamism", it describes societies' time horizon. Long term oriented societies attach more importance to the future. They foster pragmatic values oriented towards rewards, including persistence, saving and capacity for adaptation. In short term oriented societies, values promoted are related to the past and the present, including steadiness, respect for tradition, preservation of one's face, reciprocation and fulfilling social obligations.
Putting together national scores (from 1 for the lowest to 120 for the highest), Hofstede's six dimensions model allow international comparison between cultures, also called comparative research: * Power distance index shows very high scores for Latin and Asian countries, African areas and the Arab world. On the other hand Anglo and Germanic countries have a lower power distance.
For example, the United States has a 40 on the cultural scale of Hofstede's analysis. Compared to Guatemala where the power distance is very high (95) and Israel where it is very low (13),