Adult Learning Theories: Optimized, Transformative, And Critical Reflection

Improved Essays
Three learning theories that will be addressed in this discussion are as follows, self-directed and optimized, transformative, and critical reflection. Chen (2014) investigates “adult learners are self-directed and their learning is optimized when their experience is recognized and utilized in the learning process” (p. 407). Adult students are not 'clear slates' and their background turns into the medium through which substance is found out and in which to rethink new objectives to achieve (Chen, 2014). Self-directed is appropriate for an adult due to the connection that is made with their life experiences, the adult is able to plan and implement learning based upon their desire and initiation to learn. Self-directed is inappropriate for children because children rely upon the teacher as the caretaker to their education and implementation of it. I know as a …show more content…
The next adult learning theory is transformative. Learning is transformative and prompts self-improvement (Chen, 2014). Chen (2014) explores “academics often serve as a trigger for prior pain, and will invariably include times of confusion, conflict, and discomfort, which can lead to transformative growth opportunities” (p.408). Transformative is appropriate for an adult in how problematic frames are transformed of reference to make them more comprehensive, separating, intelligent, open, and candidly ready to change (Chen, 2014). For a child, their perspective of the world is not as broad as an adult. They cannot fully grasp the idea of

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    Often times, these experiences are habitual in nature that creates meaning of the world around them. Mezirow’s theory of transformative learning (1978), challenges that psyche. There are four components of transformative learning: experience, critical reflection, reflective discourse and action (Merriam et al., 2007, p. 134). From a psychodevelopmental lens, the outcome of transformative learning is when there is a “shift” in how one perceives themselves and makes sense of the world around them (Hoggan, 2016, p. 61). The learning outcomes of transformative learning are centered on improving adults to deal with social issues or daily living.…

    • 1050 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Within the adult learning praxis, there is a need for organizations to adopt a learning culture in which learning is continuous to meet the challenges of the changes occurring in the learning environment (Mavrinac, 2005). In the adult learning praxis, there are areas that will line up with the traditional leadership style, such as the cost of education. The learners have little input on how much items will cost, such books and what fees they are required to pay; therefore, this is a form of traditional leadership because someone else is responsible for making the decision about the cost. The traditional leadership style can be a source for problem-based learning that is focused upon a problem; thus, a person seeks information about the problem to gain better insight of the problem. This type of learning portrays a characteristic of the adult learning praxis; subsequently, there becomes a situation that needs to be addressed resulting in new skills.…

    • 917 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Just as the authors of Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education stated on affective learning, “Emotionally charge images, evoked through the context of adult learning, provide the opportunity for a more profound access to the world by inviting a deeper understanding of ourselves in relationship with it” (Kasworm, Rose and Gordon-Ross, 2010, pg. 37). Having an understanding of others feeling and how they may feel when working in a group can be hard for many adults because as adult learners they are self-directed learners and having someone other than the teacher tell them what to do is hard for many to accept. For example, the students’ that I chose to work again as group were not agreeing with one another, so their emotions would become shaken that they could not ignore it. This is the proses of transformative learning when my students self-reflect on their actions or thoughts and learn to realize that they can work this out as a team.…

    • 1169 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    It lends itself to various perspectives and not to mention the benefits of having a scaffolding team with learners who are also full time employees outside of the classroom (Hughes et al., 2014). Dialogue impacts self-assessment in order to improve student learning. It notes four stages of learner development; existing knowledge, acquiring of new knowledge, utilizes feedback to validate new knowledge, and process new knowledge into a framework (Hinnett, 1998). The importance of feedback is essential to the learner but must not only be given from the instructor. Dialogue education allows for adult learners to challenge old psyches and develop new ones in a discussion format.…

    • 1337 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Students will be able to act out what they understand their “character” would do in a situation” (Nickerson, n.d., para.1) • How it is used • Why it is appropriate for adult learners • Advantages and disadvantages to using this method • Method 2- Demonstration or multimedia presentation • Demonstration or multimedia presentation is a too that can “increase the teacher’s productivity and effectiveness at demonstrating subject matter to the whole class or facilitating group interaction,” (Wissick, C. A. (1996) pg. 2-3) • How it is used • Why it is appropriate for adult learners • Advantages and disadvantages to using this method Method 3- Dialogue • Dialogue – “Asynchronous online discussions are often used to encourage students to think and engage with one other,” suggested by DeNoyelles, A., & Reyes-Foster, B. (2015, pg. 2).…

    • 1101 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Plasticity Theory

    • 1571 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Sternberg’s Practical Intelligence theory includes, among other things, problem solving skills and tacit knowledge, knowledge that reflects a learner’s ability to learn from experience and apply knowledge toward his or her personal goals (Merriam et al, 2007). Unlike Gardner’s relatively unfounded theory, the work of Sternberg has decades of research history behind it, and the “experience factor” can resonate deeply with adults seeking intellectual validation for a lifetime of living. Last, emotional intelligence emerges as an alternate form of intelligence: the concept of understanding and managing one’s emotions, as well as recognizing emotions in others, is a skill usually acquired with age and experience. For the aging…

    • 1571 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Andragogy, or the practices of teaching adult learners, incorporates many perspectives and ideas from research. Among these are six andragogical principles related to motivation of adult learning. When reflecting upon learning experiences, adults should also consider cognitive, personality, and prior knowledge differences that may exist in each scenario. The following personal learning experiences serve as illustrations of these six principles. The Learner’s Need to Know I am guilty of attending professional learning opportunities and seeing little to no point in being at the training or learning the material being presented.…

    • 1219 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Compare Traditional and Adult Learners The learning styles of the traditional learner and the adult learner are different. The adult learning theory of Malcolm Knowles, also known as anadragogy, explains how the adult learner learns information (Pappas, 2013). This theory can be used in many contexts, such as the classroom, workforce development, and the workplace, and this paper explains the difference between these two types of learners and gives examples of how to use the adult learning theory in practical applications in the workplace. How Learning Styles for the Traditional and Adult Learners Differ Figure 1. Differences between the learning styles of the traditional and the adult learner.…

    • 1529 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Adult Learning Reflection

    • 1195 Words
    • 5 Pages

    (“Adult learning theory,” 2007.) This theory influenced my philosophy of learning. I became more meticulous when designing educational activity and I consider principles of adult learning to facilitate…

    • 1195 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The requirement for adults to seek out higher education is steadily increasing as today’s knowledge-based society demands this of them. Adult’s have many reasons why they have decided to take on this journey of lifelong learning (job-related, personal advancement, social relationships and social welfare) therefore, we as facilitators must work together to develop new strategies and improve old strategies that will engage / inspire adults as they overcome barriers to learn through a meaningful educational experience. Through the use of Scaffolding strategies the teacher-student interaction will have a structure that works to transfers responsibility of learning from the teacher to the student providing them with tailored support that gradually…

    • 706 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays