Yeast Leavening Report

Leavening techniques for yeast breads include yeast fermentation. The yeast is activated and when ferments sugar it produces CO2 that increases the dough’s size. Quick breads, biscuits, and muffins all use chemical leavening agents such as baking soda and an acid or baking powder. The acid and the base in the chemical leavening agent react to form CO2 that cause dough rising like yeast fermentation. Gluten free products use yeast and gums to help leaven the product and set its structure to trap CO2 bubbles. Gluten free products however typically do not rise as well as yeast or chemical leavening agent techniques because of the lack of elasticity formed by gluten’s structure that traps the CO2 within the bread. The leavening techniques …show more content…
Gluten is a protein matrix made up of the gluten forming proteins: glutenin and gliadin. These two proteins are unquie because when they are kneaded and hydrated, they associate with one another and form an elastic protein matrix. The function of gluten is to add elasticity to the product and trap the CO¬¬2 produced from the leavening agent to help the dough rise and shape. Yeast breads without gluten have difficulties trapping the CO¬2 within the bread structure and raising the bread because there is not enough elasticity. Gums, such as xanthan gum, can be added to help trap the gas bubbles but it is not a perfect substitute. Gluten can be allergenic if a person lacks the protease to break down gluten’s specific protein …show more content…
A blend of potato starch, tapioca flour and sorghum flours can be used to make gluten free bread. Sorghum flour is high in protein content that helps with imitation of gluten structure, but often imparts a darker coloring to the bread. Tapioca flour has high carbohydrate levels and little protein or fiber structure (Layton, 2010). Potato starch is higher than tapioca flour in carbohydrates but also has no fiber or protein (Layton, 2010). Tapioca flour and potato starch add to the softness of the dough and sorghum flour helps with the protein structure, however the combination still does not match the qualities that a gluten structure would have due to the reduced protein and higher carbohydrate levels.
8. Potential Causes of the Following Bread Faults
a. Poor Volume- Did not proof long enough
b. Too Much Volume – did not punch out dough
c. Poor Shape- did not knead long enough
d. Split or burst crust – Slits not made on top of bread for steam to escape
e. Crumb too dense or close-grained- The baking temperature was too high
f. Crumb too course or open- dough was not hydrated enough
g. Poor texture or crumbly- too much flour was added
h. Crust too dark- the baking temperature was too high
i. Crust too pale- egg wash not added
j. Crust too thick- baking temperature too

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