Non-Pharmacological Pain: A Literature Review

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Literature Review
Pain is defined as “a physical and sensory discomfort that causes suffering that affects an individual’s quality of life” (Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper and Camera, 2014). And like every individual, pain is perceived differently regardless of the age. For a newborn(neonates) who is born before 48 weeks, they are exposed to greater pain sensitivity and intensity due to inability to control the pain process (Hatfield, 2014). A preterm who is placed into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at severe risk for pain because they are commonly predisposed to multiple procedures and treatments due to a severity of complications (Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk and Wilson, 2013, p.710-711). In short, a preterm neonate
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457). However, with a list of benefits of non-pharmacological, a gap that most studies do not highlight enough, is the stability of these treatments through multiple procedures. It is important to be aware of the consistent effectiveness of the treatment through multiple procedures as it ensures that the neonate 's pain is in fact managed because if not, the neonate pain will be undertreated. Despite other non-pharmacological treatments such as non-nutritive sucking, commonly used nonpharmacological treatments for preterm neonates in the NICU are skin to skin (kangaroo care) and oral sucrose (Perry et al, …show more content…
A hypothesis (H1) for this question is that there will be a difference in effectiveness between the two treatments when managing pain for the neonates. The second hypothesis (H0) is that there will be no cause of effect from one treatment to another when managing a neonate’s

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