Non-Pharmacological Pain: A Literature Review

Superior Essays
Introduction
Literature Review
Pain is defined as “a physical and sensory discomfort that causes suffering that affects an individual’s quality of life” (Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper and Camera, 2014). And like every individual, pain is perceived differently regardless of the age. For a newborn(neonates) who is born before 48 weeks, they are exposed to greater pain sensitivity and intensity due to inability to control the pain process (Hatfield, 2014). A preterm who is placed into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at severe risk for pain because they are commonly predisposed to multiple procedures and treatments due to a severity of complications (Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk and Wilson, 2013, p.710-711). In short, a preterm neonate
…show more content…
457). However, with a list of benefits of non-pharmacological, a gap that most studies do not highlight enough, is the stability of these treatments through multiple procedures. It is important to be aware of the consistent effectiveness of the treatment through multiple procedures as it ensures that the neonate 's pain is in fact managed because if not, the neonate pain will be undertreated. Despite other non-pharmacological treatments such as non-nutritive sucking, commonly used nonpharmacological treatments for preterm neonates in the NICU are skin to skin (kangaroo care) and oral sucrose (Perry et al, …show more content…
A hypothesis (H1) for this question is that there will be a difference in effectiveness between the two treatments when managing pain for the neonates. The second hypothesis (H0) is that there will be no cause of effect from one treatment to another when managing a neonate’s

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    Initially, I thought that the idea of a placebo was clever and safer process than taking drugs and medication. Regardless, reading more into the placebo is interesting to think of it being based on the person unaware of the sugar pills or false surgery being done. It is scary to think that there is a chance that you may not get better might be because the proper medication was given and a doctor chose to prescribe a placebo instead. It is always interesting to see both sides of an issue in order to better understand the true effect that this process would have on patients. In the end, the placebo effect is an interesting psychological concept that has proven to be both effective and hazardous.…

    • 1849 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Even if symptoms are not present, early screening is conducive in the health of at-risk individuals. Identifying the risk factors provides useful information to healthcare professionals, even when concerning asymptomatic individuals (US Preventive Services Task Force, 2002). By undergoing early screening procedures, changes in an individual’s psyche become easier to recognize, and as a result, depression becomes easier to diagnose. Unfortunately however, individuals are less receptive to the idea of undergoing early screening procedures for depression. Whether it’s because the individual exhibits no signs of depression and therefore feels no need to be screened, or if it’s because of a lack of understanding on the subject of depression, informing people of the severity of depression and the effectiveness of early screening would encourage people to get screened.…

    • 1339 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    A fetus is “a human being….in the later stages of development before it is born.” (Meriam-Webster’s Learner’s Dictionary) Fetal abuse is abusing a baby that is still in the womb. This type of abuse has been identified with abortion for a long time, but now it goes beyond the scope of simply terminating a pregnancy. Unfortunately, babies today are more susceptible to fetal abuse than ever before. Today, abuse to babies in the womb can be thought of as deadly disease that has created multiple different strands of mutations. It is difficult to imagine the words “drug” and “baby” in the same sentence.…

    • 969 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Corruption In Foster Care

    • 1158 Words
    • 5 Pages

    A Broken and Corrupt Foster Marcia R. Lowry, founder and executive director of A Better Childhood, once addressed on how, “It’s likely that these children have been terribly damaged. Now they face the foster care system… so having faced one terrible situation, they might wind up in another”. This is a clear example of how kids in foster care will end in lots of damage during and after the system. Corruption in the foster care system will affect many children psychologically because of the issues and problems they go through every day in a system that is broken. Taking in a child who is not your own because their parents are not capable of doing so has been happening way before having its official name.…

    • 1158 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Of course an alternative to continuous abstinence is periodic abstinence. This simply means planning ahead and abstaining when you may be fertile. Other options include condoms or diaphragms; this is considered a barrier method. They work to prevent conception by keeping the sperm from fertilizing the eggs and have only an 11-16% failure rate (source). The fourth method, surgical sterilization either by tubal ligation or vasectomy, is in my opinion quite rash because it is unchangeable.…

    • 1178 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Medication alone can’t be the sole answer. As Barlow exemplified HRT. HRT, believed to the solution to postmenopausal symptoms and even believed to provide additional benefits, was found to do quite the opposite of its marketed benefits. Barlow noted that as psychological interventions are proven to be effective time as after time, they are also proved to be as effective (and sometimes even more effective) than medications to specific disorders. Why administer medication, that may help the individual psychologically but ruining their organs and metabolic processes.…

    • 704 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    PGD Essay

    • 972 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Patients can also develop a pelvic infection when undertaking PGD. This can occasionally follow an egg collection and, rarely, an abscess develops. It should most often be avoided through the use of sterile conditions and antibiotics for women who are at a higher risk of infection, but there is never a guarantee. Symptoms of an infection can include pain, bright red vaginal bleeding, odoured vaginal discharge, diarrhoea, fever and generally feeling unwell. It can be cured through antibiotic treatment but in severe cases an operation may be necessary.…

    • 972 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Risk Factors for Perpetrators Numerous risk factors are involved. The World Health Organization reports scores of child abusers encompass the same characteristics. These include: having been maltreated themselves as a child, difficulty bonding with their newborn, having unrealistic expectations of their child, misusing alcohol or drugs, being involved in criminal activity, and experiencing financial difficulties (WHO, 2016). A lack of parenting skills may play a part in parents abusing their children. Being under stress could cause a parent to lose control and physically abuse their child.…

    • 1692 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Endometriosis is a debilitating and painful disease estimated to occur in 50% of women seeking treatment for pain and infertility (Prince & Thomas, 2015). Despite its prevalence, there is a significant diagnostic delay associated with endometriosis; the length of time between the first presentation of symptoms to the actual diagnosis averages 6 to 11 years (Yates, 2015). This diagnostic delay stems from widely debated pathogenesis, varied presentation, and standard methods of diagnosis (Prince & Thomas, 2015; Vercellini, Vigano, Somingliana & Luigi, 2014; Yates, 2015). Debated Pathogenesis The causation of endometriosis is a subject of widespread debate (Prince & Thomas, 2015). Pathogenically, it is most widely evidenced and supported…

    • 1002 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    They have somewhat enhanced the quality of life for an individual as well as eliminated a huge burden of suffering and disability, and contributed to the length of life. “Small pox, measles, and diphtheria, polio: vaccines have diminished their power, and in some cases, eradicated these dreaded diseases” (Boom 35). One of the main reasons vaccinations should be mandatory is because of adolescence, young children, and babies. The vaccinations may be able to save a child’s life because a child’s immune system is not as strong as an adult. Vaccinations are said to also be proven safe and effective.…

    • 1197 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays