John Bowlby's Attachment Theory

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Through attachment, a child has the ability to advance his or her cognitive skills created by relationship bonding between the child and caregiver. According to Sigelman & Rider, attachment “is a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion (Sigelman & Rider, 2009). John Bowlby (1969), developer of attachment theory, believed that children who formed a continuing socio-emotional bond with an adult is more likely to survive in the world that he or she lives in. Attachment theory analyzes the significance of an interaction between the caregiver and the child. Emotional bonding is a result of this relationship-building process. The creation of a powerful emotional bond between a nurturing adult and a newborn child is crucial …show more content…
In stage 1, infants during the first 3 months develop a distinction between human beings and objects. That being said, infants respond to people through vocalization and human interaction. In stage 2, infants from age 3 to 6 months develop a distinction between strangers and his or her guardians. The infant responds enthusiastically in the presence of the primary caregiver and will feel distressed when he or she is absent. From ages 6 to 9 months, stage 3, the infant attempts to stay close to his or her caregiver. During this stage, infants exhibit periodic eye contact with the caregiver, while also paying attention to the reactions displayed by the adult in a given situation. In stage 4, age 9 to 12 months, infants have the ability to create an idea of the caregivers’ behavior and expectations, as well as interpret the caregivers’ reactions to his or her distress. In the final stage, at 12 months the infant creates a heightened sensitivity to his or her interaction with the primary caregiver. Persistent seeking of love and affection is common during the final stage. Attachment theory suggests that a positive bond is one in which the caregiver is trusted by the infant. There are different forms of attachment that can be created between the child and the primary …show more content…
Baldwin applied the concept of rational schemas to attachment theory when classifying characteristics of internal working models. When applied to attachment theory, the child will form schemas that represent thoughts and feelings about oneself, the caretaker, and the dynamic event. These internal schemas will affect the relationships that he or she may have in adulthood. Schemas are a significant part of secure and insecure relationships. A securely attached child may anticipate that his or her caregiver is accepting and responsive to his or her needs. Children who experienced secure attachments in childhood are more likely to develop stable relationships in adulthood (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2007). In a secure bond, the child will believe that he or she is valued and that the caregiver is dependable. An insecurely attached child develops schemas representing frustration, anxiety, and mistrust. The child’s perception of the caregiver is that he or she is unreliable, which leads the child to feel undesirable or unloved. Due to the lack of availability of the caregiver, the child forms insecure coping strategies to deal with the internal

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