Paper On Hypertension

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Hypertension or otherwise known as High blood pressure is defined as a high force of blood pushing on the walls of the arteries during the flow of blood. Blood pressure is measured as the heart pumps and as the heart fills and rests in between heartbeats. This is called systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. They are both measured in milliliters of mercury. Those with a systolic pressure of over 120 and a diastolic pressure of above 80 are clinically defined as having prehypertension and those with a systolic pressure of over 140 and a diastolic pressure of over 90 are defined as having hypertension. Naturally our blood pressure raises and lowers on its own. When we sleep it lowers and when we wake up it increases. During the day our blood …show more content…
Primary hypertension does not have a specific cause that can be identified. This type of hypertension develops slowly throughout a person’s life. Secondary hypertension is caused by an underlying condition. In this type it arises suddenly and the blood pressure is usually much higher than in primary hypertension. There are certain medications or conditions that cause this. The medications could be birth control pills, decongestions, pain relievers and other drugs. The medical conditions can be sleep apnea, thyroid problems, kidney problems, adrenal gland tumors, and many others.
Risk factors of primary hypertension are usually lifestyle factors. People, who are not active, eat a sodium rich diet and use tobacco and alcohol are at a higher risk of developing the disease. African-Americans, diabetics, people who are obese, people who suffer from anxiety and people who have a family history have a higher risk as
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This causes them to signal an area in the brain called the nucleus tractus solitaris. This functions in decreasing sympathetic output to the blood vessels and decreasing blood pressure. In a person suffering from hypertension constantly their baroreceptor may adjust to that constant raise in blood pressure and accept it as its new set point. So now when a persons blood pressure is above the new set point it will want to adjust back to it instead of a normal blood pressure.

On a cellular level there are many different causes of hypertension. People who have a specific genetic variation have increased risks of developing hypertension. The gene variation is known as polymorphisms. These polymorphisms can heighten risk alone or associate with other variations. In the endothelium there is a cell called the pericyte, this cell can sense the amount of blood flow and if the forces are too strong then it can signal the endothelial cells to secrete nitrous oxide to decrease blood pressure.

On a Molecular level Antidiuretic hormones helps to =aquaporin II and epithelium sodium

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