Essay about How People Learn

3973 Words Apr 5th, 2006 16 Pages

Learning can be defined formally as the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills. Burns ‘conceives of learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour, with behaviour including both observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions'. Burns (1995) considers that learning might not manifest itself in observable behaviour until some time after the educational program has taken place. Learning helps us move from novices to experts and allows us to gain new knowledge and abilities. There are many different theories on how people learn. This paper will summarize in the next chapter, a range of conventional learning theories. In the third chapter, this
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An observer's behavior can be affected by the positive or negative consequences (called vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment) of a model's behavior.
There are several guiding principles behind observational learning, or social learning theory:
• The observer will imitate the model's behavior if the model possesses characteristics (things such as talent, intelligence, power, good looks, or popularity) that the observer finds attractive or desirable.
• The observer will react to the way the model is treated and mimic the model's behavior. When the model's behavior is rewarded, the observer is more likely to reproduce the rewarded behavior. When the model is punished, an example of vicarious punishment, the observer is less likely to reproduce the same behavior.
• A distinction exists between an observer's "acquiring" a behavior and "performing" a behavior.

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