Effects Of Stigma In Health Care

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Regardless of the medical advances in HIV treatment, the social facets related to stigma, discourages the physical, mental and emotional wellness of individuals diagnosed with HIV (Sayles et al., 2009). Link and Phelan (2001) describe stigma as status loss, disgrace, stereotyping, and discrimination, all intertwined in a convoluted social process that can have a negative effect on health and life in general. It is the characterization of labeling differences with a negative connotation (Sayles et al., 2009). Of those most susceptible, were those addicted to substance use, and without a support system; many of whom were already marginalized due to sexual orientation, race, or substance abuse (Levi-Minzi & Surratt, 2014). Leary and Schreindorfer
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Korsen et al. (2013) highlights the efficiency and effectiveness of this model,
Integrated behavioral health care can systematically enhance a primary care practice’s ability to effectively address behavioral health issues that naturally emerge in the primary care, prevent fragmentation between behavioral health and medical care, and create effective relationships with mental health specialists outside the primary care setting (para. 2).
Cooker et al. asserts integration is “a spectrum of organizational arrangements relating to the funding, administration, organization, service-delivery and clinical scenarios designed to create connectivity, alignment and collaboration” (as cited in Topp et al., 2013, p. 348). Both substance use and HIV patients often lack the connectedness and treatment network to combat their illnesses; and often experience a high prevalence of additional medical disorders or shortages in basic care. If not addressed as part of medical treatment, complications can arise, and lead to reduction in treatment compliance (Farber et al., 2012). Integration of treatment services therefore allows for a more holistic care to the patient, encouraging prevention and continuum of care, in addition to more flexibility for the provider (Stone & Katz, 1997). However, practitioners conceptualizing
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Treatment planning is synthesized for patients with multiple diagnoses. Instead of 3 treatment plans and or referrals to providers with established relationships; a patient with a substance abuse, HIV, and an additional medical diagnosis (i.e. hypertension or diabetes) will have 1 treatment plan. This decreases patient’s improper use of behavioral health and medical services when care is fragmented and left up to the patient to coordinate (SAMHSA, n.d). Health care practitioners gain shared knowledge and in-depth understanding of culture and roles in an integrated care delivery system. Population-based versus individual behavioral health and medical screenings become standard practice for the

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