Desalination Case Study

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1. Introductiom
Water is a resource that humanity need for both domestic and industrial use and is utilized in a huge amount. Thus, there is a pressure on water. The increase of population and the industrial development of the majority of countries aggravate the problem. The excessive consumption of water coupled with the scarcity of this resource make the issue even more critical. According to Lefort, water covers around 70 percent of the Earth, freshwater makes up only 3 percent of it, moreover, almost all of that is unattainable to use. Lefort, R. (1996). Generally, only about 0.01 percent of the world’s total water supply is considered available for human use. What is more frustrating is that only few sources of fresh water can be relied
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As a background to the report the world’s arid areas will be introduced. It is also important to define the term “arid area”. An area is considered arid when it is described as lacking of available water, to the extent of inhibiting the elaboration of plant and animal life.

Most arid regions encircle the equator, including most of Africa and parts of South America, Central America and Australia (Gfriffiths, 1985).

Obviously, the negative impact of the lack of water is unbearable. Water scarcity already has an impact on every continent. Nearly 1.6 billion people, face economic water shortage, a situation when a country miss the infrastructure needed to extract water from rivers and ponds.
(Kevin Watkins, 2006). Human Development Report 2006.
Water scarcity leads to a large range of problems: lack of access to drinking water, hunger, lack of education, disease and sanitation issues. The scale of the problem is shown on a map attached.

(International Water Management Institute) (BBC
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This technology allows to harvest 90% depth of the fresh groundwater. (Shahbaz Khan, Muhammad Nadeem Asgha, 2008)

4.5 Water quality
The quality of the water mainly depends on the technologies used. For example, tube, scavenger and skimming wells prone to extract groundwater of poor quality, whilst dug wells and subsurface collector wells manage to cope with their task better, due to horizontal strainers, instead of vertically installed ones. (Shahbaz Khan, Muhammad Nadeem Asgha, 2008)

5.0 Desalination
5.1 Explanation
About 97 percent of water on earth is a salt water from oceans and remaining 3 percent, fresh water, areis located in deferent places such as atmosphere, rivers, ice, ground and plants and in some cases this water is unattainable and due to this fact desalination technics a ideal solution of the problem. Desolation is a process of turning salt water into fresh drinking water by removing salts and minerals.

The American Heritage Science Dictionary, Houghton Mifflin Company, via Retrieved August 19, 2007. (2016)
U.S. Geological

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