Compare and contrast two theories of leadership. Do these theories offer practical guidance for managers?
Practice in management There has been a long debate about the functions of leadership and management. Kotter (1990) argued the goal of leadership is to pursue the adaptive and constructive changes and the purpose of management is to acquire stability and consistency. In addition, he suggested that the process of leadership is to influence others and management is to maintain operations and accomplish goals. As was mentioned earlier, the trait theory contains highly subjective perspectives. It means that the perception of leadership traits is associated with the assessment of leadership. Barry et al (2003) conducted an
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Emotional intelligence is another method to estimate the impact of traits in managerial culture and has been widely studies to highlight the importance of interpersonal relationship. Mayer et al. (2000) suggested that the abilities to express and moderate emotions should be introduced into the management area. Managers could be perceived as a leadership prototype by subordinates and could be able to establish or change organizational cultures. For instance, Hillary Clinton is noted for her hardness and softness in diplomacy by which public consider her an international politic celebrity with high female emotional quotient. The skills approach had defined the core components which are attainable by learning. This skill-based learning process not only makes leadership accessible but also let individuals could develop their potential. According to Katz (1995), management skills occur in different levels of organizations which are supervisory, middle and top management in which leaders should posses various perspectives and management skills to exert influence to become more effective administrators. Managers are likely to get promotion if they are perceived to have qualifications to higher positions. Take the chief executive officer of Microsoft Corporation as an example, Steve Ballmer had functioned in various departments such as operations, sales and support, and product development which enhance his competency for being a top