Compare And Contrast Biomedical And Social Model Of Health

Superior Essays
Many different models of health exist, generally, falling into two categories: a biomedical and a social model. Both of these models are important in health systems over the last 150 years, although recently there has been a stronger emphasizes on social models. Primarily, social models are used in health systems as it expands on generalised medicine seen in the western world. This model is central to explaining how age, income, environmental conditions and housing play an important role in the rates of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in New Zeeland. The effect of implementing a social model of health in New Zealand shows in current rates of acute rheumatic fever.
Wade and Halligan’s (2004), report on biomedical models state
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If ARF is left untreated the immune system attacks the heart valves, damaging the cusps. The development from ARF to rheumatic heart disease can lead to numerous heart problems in adult life. From 1993 to 2009 incidence rates of ARF have decreased by 71% in non-Māori/pacific but has increased by 79% and 73% respectively for Māori and pacific children. Even though Māori and pacific children only accounted for 30% of children in 2006, they comprised 92% of new cases of ARF. Since 1993 the high incidence of ARF in Māori and Pacific children seems to be linked to socioeconomic disparity. The National Health Committee (2013), found that RHD affect roughly 60% of patients with ARF. Additionally, there were 487 hospital discharges for patients with RHD in 2011/12 and more than 100 deaths in 2006. ARF has largely disappeared from the developed world except in New Zealand. Bowie (2006), concluded an association between over-crowding living conditions and rates of infectious disease including ARF. Goodyear, and Fabian (2012), stated that in 2001 New Zeeland had the highest rate of household overcrowding compared to Australia, England and Canada. The Ministry of Health (2014) 2013 census found that 10% of New Zealanders live household crowed conditions. Of that 10% two fifths are pacific, one fifth are Māori and Asian and one …show more content…
Milne, Lennon, Stewart, Vander Hoorn, and Scuffham (2012), firstly state that that the age and ethnicity of a person can determine the incidence rate of ARF. For example ARF is common in Māori and Pacific island aged between 5 to 14 years. Secondly, over-crowded living conditions are one of the main contributing factors that affect the incidence rate of ARF. It also found that children are more likely to develop such diseases due to a lower immune system. Milne, Lennon, Stewart, Vander Hoorn, and Scuffham (2012), thirdly link environmental conditions to ARF, coincidently being higher in the upper North Island. Fourthly, rates of ARF are higher in low socioeconomic areas, with 71% of cases being in areas of decile 10 socioeconomic deprivation. Lastly, the Ministry of Health (2015), acknowledged that barriers to health care and decreased treatment opportunities were high among Māori and pacific in cases of strep throat. The Whitehead & Dahlgren’s social model clearly demonstrates many social, biological, economical, and environmental aspects attributed with ARF. Comparatively, the biomedical model would barely illustrate the effects of social factors on the rate of ARF in New Zealand. For instance, Milne, Lennon, Stewart, Vander Hoorn, and Scuffham (2012) found that the biomedical model would simply conclude that ARF is solely caused and

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