Common Complications Of Diabetes, Type 1, And Cardiovascular Diseases

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According to The American Diabetes Association, “Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Chronic hyperglycemia found in patients with diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels” (p.1). There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2. Insulin management is needed for type 1 diabetes, because it is an autoimmune disease. Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is controlled by a strict diet. If the diet is not followed, then hypoglycemic proxies and insulin may be necessary to control a steady blood sugar level (Burden M, 2003). …show more content…
Cardiovascular disease is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of death among clients with diabetes. Patients with both Diabetes type 1 and 2 are at greater risk for a heart attack, if they have heart disease. Kidney disease is when the kidneys cannot rid the body of wastes. Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure. People with renal disease end up needing to undergo dialysis, an artificial blood-cleaning process, or may need to receive a transplant of a healthy kidney from an organ donor. Peripheral Vascular Disease is caused by atherosclerosis, the buildup of fatty material within the vessels, which leads to vessel blockage. Also, a very common complication of diabetes is a foot injury. Diabetes may lead to an amputation, which is why diabetic foot care is taught to the patient. Neuropathy is a deterioration of nerves resulting in loss of nerve function. The most primitive signs for nephropathy is microalbuminuria, annual testing for albumin, BUN, and cerum creatinine is suggested. Diabetic retinopathy is considered legal blindness and annual eye exams are suggested. The cause of retinopathy is the blockage of retinal blood vessel leading to micro aneurysms with vessel leakage leading to retinal hypoxia and new vessel growth, which leads to blindness. Erectile …show more content…
The patient will be taught how to manage their diabetes when they are very ill. Inform of signs and symptoms of neuropathy. Stress the importance of quitting smoking. Teach the importance of managing cholesterol and lipids, also monitor blood pressure. Nursing teaching includes the administration of insulin. Insulin is necessary for normal carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. Type 1 diabetes patients do not produce enough of these hormones which is why insulin is very life sustaining. Diet and exercise play a great role in maintaining health in a diabetic patient. It is recommended to exercise daily and eat a balanced diabetic diet which includes fruits, vegetables, chicken, fish, beans, and whole grains. Record calories taken in with daily activities. Limit intake of saturated, cholesterol, salt, and added sugar (Rosdahl,

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