Diabetes Melllitus Case Study

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Diabetes mellitus is a collection of common metabolic disorders. The scenario of

passing large amount of urine is described by the Greek and Roman physicians as diabetes whereas the term mellitus refers to sweet taste (Barrett, Barman, Boitano, & Brooks, 2012). The name of the disease reveals one of the important clinical manifestation, that is, passing sweet-tasted urine, and in the other word, the presence of sugar in the urine. Besides that, Funk (2010) stated that there are three most common symptoms in diabetes mellitus, which are polyuria (large volume of urine), polydipsia (excessive thrist), and polyphagia (excessive eating). Lecthuman et al. (2010) revealed that overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Malaysia, during year 2006
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One of the acute complications is abnormal increase in blood glucose level. As discussed by Funk (2010), when the amount of glucose in blood exceeds the ability of kidney to reuptake, there is excess glucose that escapes the reabsorption and remains in the urine. The presence of glucose in the urine increases the osmotic pressure resulting in osmotic diuresis that is clinically presented as polyuria. Diabetic ketoacidosis is another acute complication of diabetes mellitus. It is the hallmark of type 1 diabetes and it is usually occured in previously undiagnosed diabetes (Anderson & Gale, 2009), in which the insulin deficiency favours the pathway of ketone bodies production that will eventually decreases the serum pH level and when the condition gets worse, the patient falls into coma state (Funk, 2010). Non-ketotic hyperosmolar state is another acute complication. As mentioned by Anderson and Gale (2009), it is a medical emergency commonly present in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Unlike type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus does not develope ketoacidosis, although both of them lead to coma in severe case. Anderson and Gale (2009) also stated that the difference between them could be explained by the severity in insulin deficiency. The remaining endogenous insulin levels are sufficient to inhibit ketogenesis in liver in type 2 diabetes that reduced the possibility to …show more content…
According to Molina (2013), diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 are caused by impaired release of pancreatic hormone known as insulin. When there is relative or total absence of this hormone, uptake of glucose by insulin- sensitive tissues is greatly decreased and it causes serious consequences in human body as blood glucose level rises (Molina, 2013). In terms of medication for diabetes, Power (2012) recommended that for type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes, various insulin preparations and regimens are used to produce the effect of insulin release after meals as like in normal physiological condition. Insulin preparations are human insulin produced from recombinant DNA technology. Most of the time, insulin is injected into the subcutaneous tissues. The patients need to inject insulin for their life time and it is a heavy economic burden. On the other hand, according to Neal (2008), oral anti-diabetic drugs that can lower the plasma glucose level are recommended for the pharmacologic therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes. Since the insulin is not sufficient in the diabetic patients to act on the glucose consumed, the drugs lower the level of glucose in blood to avoid the abnormal high glucose level. The major aspects of the management of diabetes are dietary control and active physical activity (Power, 2012). As discussed by

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