Cloning Ethics

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Rather than the deceptive view of cloning in scientific fiction novels or television shows, cloning of embryos is full of trial and error work to establish a clone that is fully functional. Clones are organisms that are an exact genetic replication. Clones sometimes happen naturally, such as identical twins, or they can be produced in a lab (“What is Cloning”). There are many different types of cloning including DNA cloning and Therapeutic cloning. Many attempts at cloning have become attempted throughout the year, however only a few have succeeded. There are many ethical concerns that are associated with the creation of a human by means of cloning. The cloning of genes allows for the creation of embryos that can be modified to enable features …show more content…
A common approach to this method includes combining a bacteria, commonly E. coli, and the cell that contains the specific gene that the scientist wants to clone into a plasmid that acts as a cloning vector that can carry foreign DNA into a cell to replicate. The combination of the plasmid and cell results in Recombinant DNA, a molecule that includes DNA from 2 different sources, which is then put into the bacteria cell. The bacterial cell reproduces through cell division to form the clones of the cell. The specific genes now are able to portray itself in future organisms (Urry. 2016).
Therapeutic cloning, or Somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), is a process in which a donor cell from body tissue is fused with an unfertilized egg, from which the nucleus is removed, and reprograms the DNA in the donor cell to then start dividing in the egg. This type of cloning is used in the process to make genetically matched cells that are identical to the donor and can be used to recreate almost any cell type in the human body
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Scientist have found cloning humans to be more difficult than other mammals. One of the main reasons for the difficulty are the two proteins that are essential to the cell division aspects. The spindle proteins in primate eggs are located very close to the chromosomes. Consequently, the removal of the egg’s nucleus to make room for the donor cell 's nucleus also removes the spindle proteins, which interferes with the process of cell division. In other mammal cells, the spindle proteins are spread throughout the cells allowing for the removal of the nucleus without having any effect on the proteins (“Cloning”. 2016). The most recent advancements in human cloning has led scientist to the area of stem cells. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that are able to reproduce themselves and under the right conditions, reproduce into different tissue types. Adult stem cells are not able to reproduce into all types of different cells in the body. However, embryonic stem cells are able to reproduce indefinitely, and in the right circumstances, can be made into a wide range of specialized cells. The ultimate aim of stem cell research is to supply cells for damaged or diseased organs. One way to create the stem cells needed to create these cells is through cloning of healthy humans to create cells that are easily used (Urry. 2016) In the United State, no federal laws are in place to specifically

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