Chapter 15 Outline Apes Essay example

600 Words Apr 22nd, 2013 3 Pages
Chapter 15 Outline * Soil is the relatively thin surface layer of Earth’s crust consisting of minerals and organic matter modified by natural actions like… * Weather * Wind * Water * Organisms * Soil is formed from parent material, rock that is slowly broken down or fragmented into smaller particles by… * Weathering Processes
* Chemical * Physical * Topography, a region’s surface features such as the presence or absence of mountains and valleys, is also involved in soil formation. * Soil Composition: soil is composed of 4 distinct parts, minerals that make up 45% of a soil. * Organic Material (5%) * Water (25%) * Air (25%) * Mineral portion
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| Low | Medium | High | H2o holding cap | Low | Medium | High | Workability (tillage) | Easy | Moderate | Difficult |

* Major Soil Groups: * Spodsol: in cold climate. Characteristic of evergreen forests (Great Lakes) * Alfisol: in humid climate with hot summers and cold winters. Temperate deciduous forests (Michigan) * Millisol: in semiarid climate with hot summers and cold winters. Temperate grassland (North Dakota) * Ardisol: in dry climate. Characteristic of desert. (Nevada) * Oxisol: in wet warm climate, characteristic of tropical rain (Hawaii) * Sustainable Soils Use: The wise use of soil resources, without reduction in soil fertility, so that the soil remains productive for future generations. * Natural Resources Conservation Service: measures the rate of soil erosion at thousands of sites across the Unites States.


* Salinization: The gradual accumulation of salt in a soil, often as a result of improper irrigation methods * Desertification: Degradation of once- fertile rangeland, or tropical dry forest into nonproductive desert. * Conservation tillage: A method of cultivation in which residues from previous crops are left in the soil, partially covering it and helping to hold it in place until the newly planted seeds are

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