Case Study Of Coronary Artery Disease

1986 Words 8 Pages
Coronary Artery Disease
Levi Gatherwright
Morehead State University Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Artery Disease, CAD for short, is caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. The plaque (Atheroma) is a waxy like substance that consists of calcium, lipid compounds, and blood clotting compounds such as macrophages and fibrin. The buildup takes many years to accumulate; the plaque eventually swells the arterial wall restricting blood flow to the heart. This is called ischemia. Ischemia causes damage to the surrounding tissue due to the lack of blood flow, which results in slowed cellular metabolism. According to the Texas Heart Institute (2014), plaque is categorized into two types: hard plaque and soft plaque. Hard plaque builds up in the artery
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(2014) conducted a study to evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients who recently underwent surgery due to calcific valvular heart disease, and link CAD to the type of valvular heart disease. Calcific valve disease is associated with a 50% increased risk of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction even in the absence of valvular obstruction. (Emern, Z et al, 2014, p. 238) Valvular calcification is caused by the proliferative and inflammatory process, including lipid deposition, up-regulation of angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and infiltration of macrophages and T-lymphocytes. A total of 241 patients were used in the study, which was divided into four groups: patients with severe mitral stenosis (MS), patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR), patients with severe aortic regurgitation (AR), and patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Risk factors included age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, history of smoking, and LDL values. The results were recorded based on a Gensini scoring system, which translated coronary angiography results of plaque, irregular contour and slowed flow in epicardial coronary

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