Cardiovascular Disease Research Paper

1216 Words 5 Pages
American population is aging; today there are 38 million people 65 years of age or older, with the number projected to double by 2030 ( ). Epidemiological studies have shown that cholesterol levels, diabetes, hypertension, sedentary life and genetics as the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. However, advance aging unequivocally confers the major risks. Cardiovascular disease refers to a range of diseases that affect the heart and the blood vessels. Among the common ones are heart attacks – blockage of the blood flow to a part of the heart, and ischemic stroke –blockage of a blood vessel that feeds a part of the brain. Other types of cardiovascular disease include heart failure, arrhythmia and heart valves problems. This paper …show more content…
Auscultation using a stethoscope for abnormal sounds, monitoring the blood pressure and the heart rate are the initial simple exam techniques that provide the doctor with clues about the health of the heart. The basic electrocardiogram (also known as EKG or ECG), an electrical recording of the heart action, aids in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, valves disorders, arrhythmias, heart blocks and myocardial infarction.
Echocardiogram, also known as ultra-sound cardiography, is a noninvasive procedure that examines the size, shape and motion of the heart structures, like valves and heart chambers, during the cardiac cycle. Chest X-rays, stress test and tilt table test are other noninvasive procedures used in assessing the status of the cardiovascular system. Invasive procedures like cardiac catheterization and myocardial biopsy are used to determine valve disorders and abnormal shunting. Percardiocentesis, a procedure that involves the removal of fluid from the pericardial sac, is used to tests for signs of infections, inflammation or presence of
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For adequate intervention the nurse should assess the patient every 1-2 hours and as needed for vital signs, mental status and peripheral circulation. The patient should be encouraged to change position every 2 hours and to elevate the head of the bed to facilitate breathing. Monitor arterial blood gases (ABG) as well as respiration rate, pattern and depth. Administer medications and low-flow oxygen as ordered by the physician. Provide external warmth offer fluids and monitor intake and output. Auscultate heart and breath sounds as needed and continue cardiac monitor via ECG. Involve the family and other appropriate persons in the care and the

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