Essay Against Substance Dualism

772 Words 4 Pages
I argue that substance dualism is false. Substance dualism claims that people and body are distinct. People are nonphysical beings that connect to bodies. Here is my argument against substance dualism. (1) If substance dualism is true, people cannot causally influence bodies. (2) People can causally influence bodies. Therefore (3) Substance dualism is false. (1), (2) and (3) constitute a valid argument. An argument is valid means that if all of its premises are true, then the conclusion must be true. Now I’m going to prove that both premise (1) and premise (2) are true.
Premise (1) is true because (i)nonphysical beings cannot causally influence physical beings; (ii)bodies are physical beings, and (iii) if substance dualism is true, then people
…show more content…
The vibration of throat is caused by muscular contractions. Those contractions are caused by neural activities. Those activities are stimulated by other causes. To influence any step of this series of events requires a transfer of energy. However, nonphysical beings cannot influence transfer of energy. Here is the reasons. First, the transfer of energy occurs in space. Only one thing in space can transfer energy to another thing in space. Nonphysical beings don’t have spatial location, so they cannot involve the event of energy transformation. Second, Only a thing has energy can cause the transfer of energy. Because the physical universe is an energetically closed system. That is to say, the total amount of energy in the physical universe is fixed. Energy only transfers from one thing to another, but do not add or minus from the physical universe. As a result, only a thing can own energy can cause the transfer of energy: either it receive energy from others, or give energy to others. However, nonphysical beings do not have energy. Therefore nonphysical cannot transfer energy. Therefore, because causally influencing physical events requires transformation of energy, and nonphysical being cannot transfer energy, nonphysical beings cannot causally influence physical events. Bodies are physical beings that undergo physical events by definition. If substance dualism is true, then people are nonphysical being. If that is the case,

Related Documents