Advantages And Disadvantages Of Vaccination

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Vaccination is the process of injecting antigenic material to stimulate immune response. Conventional vaccines insert attenuated or killed infectious agent, such as virus or antigenic protein, into the body to stimulate immune system to develop immunity against the pathogen. However, this type of vaccines has some weakness. For example, attenuated virus may suddenly become very active in the body and cause disease instead of stimulating immune response. Conventional vaccines also unable to stimulate immune system to develop protection from some viruses such as African swine fever virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. A new approach to make vaccines is by utilizing gene cloning technique and DNA sequence. This type of vaccination is called DNA vaccination.
DNA vaccination is a method used to generate antigen-specific antibody and cell-mediated immunity. The basic concept of DNA vaccine is to clone target gene into a mammalian
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DNA vaccines turns host cell to have similar properties with pathogen by producing antigenic protein, implying highly specific characteristic. Moreover, naked DNA vaccines maintain its characteristics, unlike attenuated or killed vaccines which could have its structure change when manufactured. DNA vaccines is also considered to be safer than conventional vaccines because it avoids using weakened or killed virus. In addition, DNA vaccines can be constructed using several pathogens, thus decreasing the number of vaccinations needed to fully immunize children. Another advantage of DNA vaccines is that it has proven to be able to induce protection against diseases with no alternative treatments such as to fight against antibiotic resistant pathogens. Currently, scientist are testing the possibility of using DNA vaccines to fight Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and

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