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34 Cards in this Set

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Contact with microbe (4 results)
1)Loss (present for short time then cleared by immune system)

2)Develop allergy

3)Becomes normal flora

4)Infiltration
Role of flora
Good flora:
1 compete with pathogens
2 needed in intestine
3 source of vitamins
4 stimulate host defenses

Bad flora:
1 can create biofilm
2 opportunistic infections
Common portals of entry for microbes (5 ways)
1 skin
2 GI tract
3 Respiratory tract
4 Urogenital tract
5 placenta during pregnancy
If infection occurs 3 possible outcomes
1 Cured by immune system
2 Carrier (asymptomatic)
3 Entrenchment in tissues (disease results after MO multiplies)
How pathogens attach to tissue
1 Bacteria
2 Viruses
3 Protozoans
4 Worms
1 fimbriae, capsules, flagella, hook

2 capsid proteins, glycoprotein spikes

3 flagella or cilia

4 suckers, hooks, and barbs
Virulence Factors
-contribute to and determine degree of tissue damage
3 types of virulence factors
1 Extracellular enzymes

2 Bacterial toxins

3 Anti-phagocytic Factors
Extracellular enzymes (Exoenzymes)
Damage tissues by destroying cell components

EX:
-Mucinase (amebic dysentery)
-Keratinase (ringworm)
-Collagenase (colstridium and certain worms)
-Hyaluronidase (staph and strep)
-Coaggulase (pathogenic staph)
-Streptokinase (pathogenic strep)
Bacterial Toxins
-Poisonous chemical products

2 types:
Exotoxins
Endotoxins
Toxigenicity
controlled ability to produce toxins
Toxinoses
effects caused by toxins
Toxemia
toxin spread through blood stream
Intoxication
ingestion of toxin
Exotoxin
-Secreted toxin
-very potent, sometimes deadly
-specific target organs
-Damage cell membranes, causing lysis
EX: Streptolysis (lyses RBCs)
Endotoxins
-Structually part of cell
-Released during cell lysis
EX:LPS (can lead to toxic shock syndrome)
Anti-phagocytic Factors
Can:
1 Kill phagocytes (leukocidins)
2 Difficult to phagocytes
3 Survive inside phagocyte
Classic Stages of Infections
1 Incubation period
2 Prodromal stage
3 Period of invasion (clinical period)
4 Convalescent period
Incubation period
-Time between initial infection and onset of symptoms (asymptomatic)
-MO multiplying
-Length depends on MO and resistance
-Contagious
Prodromal Stage
-Onset of vague generalized symptoms (headache, muscle aches, fatigue)
-Short period (1-2days)
Period of invasion
-MO multiplies at high levels
-Greatest toxicity
-Specific symptoms
-Variable length
Convalescent Period
-Patient respond
-Immune system overtakes pathogen
-Symptoms decrease
Potential Outcomes of Infection (6 outcomes)
1 Terminal (mortality)
2 Morbidity (tissue/ organ damage leading to dysfunction)
3 Recover with Immunity
4 Recover without immunity
5 Recover as asymptomatic carrier
6 Relapse
Patterns of Infection (5)
1 Localized Infection
2 Systemic Infection
3 Focal Infection
4 Mixed Infection
5 Primary and Secondary Infections
Localized Infection
-Microbe enters and remains confined to specific site
EX: warts, boils
Systemic Infection
Spreads to several tissues via bodily fluids (blood, lymph, cerebrolspinal fluid)

-Many viral disease (AIDS)
-Many bacterial diseases (Syphilis)
-Some fungal infections
Focal Infection
-Pathogen breaks loose from a local infection and is carried to another site
EX: TB

Toxemia- toxin carried in blood away from local infection stie
Mixed Infection
-Infection by multiple different microbes at same site
-Produce single disease
-1st microbes breakdown tissue which allows 2nd microbe to grow
EX:Gas gangreen
Primary & Secondary Infections
Primary- Initial infection by one orgainism
Secondary- infection by a different microbe at a different site
Common Portals of Exit (5)
1 Respiratory tract
2 Skin scales
3 Feces
4 Urogenital tract
5 Blood removal or bleeding
Resiratory Tract
-Exit through saliva, mucus, sputum, nasal drainage
-via coughing, sneezing , object contact
Skin Scales
-Lesions in skin and exudates
EX:HSV
Feces
EX:polio
Urogenital tract
-Vaginal discharge or semen
Ex:STDs
Blood Removal or Bleeding
-Ticks, Flies, Mosquitos
-Share needles
-Blood donations
-Tears in mucus membrane during sex