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195 Cards in this Set

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The process that uses a carrier to move across the plasma membrane AGAINST the concentration gradient, needs ATP?
Active Transport
The use of hydrostatic force to move fluids through a membrane?
Filtration
The process that uses a carrier to move material across the plasma membrane in the DIRECTION of the concentration gradient. (no ATP)?
Facilitated Diffusion
A special form of diffusion that applies only to water?
Osmosis
The spread of molecules throughout an area?
Diffusion
The process by which a cell takes in large particles?
Endocytosis
Term for a solution with a salt concentration equal to 0.9%?
Isotonic (normal) IV
Term for a solution that is more concentrated than the fluid within a cell?
Hypertonic
A structure that assembles ribosomes?
Nucleolous
A structure that assembles amino acids into proteins?
Ribosomes
A set of membranes involved in packaging proteins for export?
Golgi Apparatus
A small sac-like structure used to transport substances within the cell?
Vesicle
A membraneous organelle that generates ATP?
Mitochondrion
A small sac-like structure that degrades waste products?
Lysosomes
The site of DNA storage?
Nucleous
The process by which an mRNA is sythensized from the DNA?
Transcription
A building block of DNA and RNA?
Nucleotide
An important component of ribosomes?
rRNA (ribosonal RNA)
The structure that carries amino acids to the ribosome?
tRNA (transfer RNA)
The nucleic acid that carries information from the nucleus to the ribosomes?
mRNA (messenger RNA)
The chromosomes become visible during this phase?
Prophase
A substance that strengthens the plasma membrane?
Cholesterol
The substance that makes up the bulk of the plasma membrane?
Pospholipids
The phase of mitosis when chromosomes are aligned in the middle of the cell?
Metaphase
DNA synthesis occurs during this phase?
Interphase
The chromosomes are being pulled apart in this phase?
Anaphase (ana-away, apart)
Organelles that consist of a series of membranes studded with ribosomes?
Rough endoplasmic reticulumn (ER)
A natural part of growth and remodeling involves the process of programmed cell death known as?
Apoptosis
Active transport requires energy (ATP) and transporters/T/F
True
The stage of mitosis during which the DNA condenses into visible chormosomes?
Prophase
Large proteins can be secreted from the cell using the process of?
Exocytosis (exo=out)
All of the following substances are constituents of the plasma membrane except?
proteins, DNA, carbs, phospholipids.
DNA (part of the nucleous and ribosomes)
A membrane protein that permits the passage of specific substances is called?
Channel
The type of light microscope in use today?
Compound light
The plasma membrane contains two kinds of lipids: cholesterol and________?
Phospholipids
In some cells the plasma membrane is folded outward into multiple small projections called?
Microvilli
The four bases found in DNA are A, C, G, and?
T (thymine)
The four bases found in RNA are A, C, G, and ?
U (uracil)
The assembly of amino acids into proteins is called?
Translation (protein synthesis)
When a red blood cell draws in water and bursts, it is said to undergo?
Hemolysis
When chromosomes duplicate during the period between mitosis?
Interphase
Transporters are used for the processes of active transport and?
Facilitated diffusion
Droplets of water and dissolved substances are brought into the cell by the process of?
Pinocytosis (pino=drink)
Bacteria are brought into the cell by the process of?
Phagocytosis (phago=eat)
A living cell (with a tonicity eq- 0.9% NaCl) is placed in a solution of 2% NaCl. The solution is?
Hypertonic (more sodium concentration out side the cell causes crenation) Loses water. (Water follows salt)
Glucose is moving into a cell, down the concentration gradient, using a carrier protein. Glucose is traveling by transport or?
Facilitated (does not require energy ATP)
The organelle responsible for the generating of ATP?
Mitochondria (if mitochondria is damaged the cell dies)
The best microscope to view a ribosome is the?
TEM (transmission electron)
1,000,000X Flat
T/F
It is impossible to count individual chromosome during interphase?
True (because they are spread out in the cell)
The small RNA containing bodies that synthesize proteins?
Ribosomes
Normal saline contains 0.9% salt, and is said to be?
Isotonic (iso=equal)
Special dyes used to see cells in a microscope are called?
Stains
The forcing of fluid through a membrane to rid it of unwanted debris?
Filtration
The division process of a cell is called?
Mitosis
During what stage of cell division does DNA condense into chromosomes?
Prophase
During what phase are chromosomes seen through a microscope?
Prophase
What type of microscope is used to view mitochondria?
SEM (scanning electron)
3-D
The outer limit of the cell is the?
Plasma membrane
The main substance of the plasma membrane is double-layer of lipid containg (P) called the?
Bilayer
The plasma membrane is composed mainly of lipids and ?
Proteins
Short extensions of the cell membrane?
microvilli
Large, dark-staining organelle near the center of the cell, composed of DNA and proteins?
Nucleus
Colloidal suspension that fills the cell from the nuclear membrane (around nucleous) to the plasma membrane (lining of the cell)?
Cytoplasm
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm?
Cytosol
Network of membranes within the cytoplasm?
ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum has________attached to it, making it grainy?
Ribosomes
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has an absence of ________?
Ribosomes
Small bodies free in cytoplasm or attached to the ER, composed of RNA and protein?
Ribosomes
Large organelles with folded membranes inside?
Mitochondria
Layers of membranes?
Golgi Apparatus
Small sacs of digestive enzymes in the cell?
Lysosomes
Membrane-enclosed organelles containing enzymes in the cell?
Peroxisomes
Small membrane-bound bubbles in the cytoplasm?
Vesicles
Rod-shaped bodies (usually two) near the nucleus?
Centrioles
Short hair-like projection from the cell, help to move fluid around the cell?
Cilia
Long, whiplike extension from the cell? The human body only has one?
Flagellum (sperm)
Shuttle substances from one side of the membrane to the other?
Transporters
Points of attachment for material coming into the cell in the blood or tissue fluid?
Receptors
Participate in reactions occuring at the plasma membrane?
Enzymes
Give structure to the membrane and help attach cells to one another?
Linkers
Proteins unique to an individuals cells, Important in transplants?
Cell Identity Markers
A sugar that helps cells to recognize each other and stick together?
Carbohydrates
Microvilli are found in what part of the body?
Lining of the small intestines, kidney.
Means "little organs"?
Organelles
Often called the control center of the cell?
Nucleus
Threadlike units of heredity that are passed on from parents to their offspring?
Chromosomes
Govern all cellular activities?
Chromosomes
A small globule inside the nucleus?
nucleolus
What organelle is responsible for assembling ribosomes?
nucleolus
Cytosol is an example of what type of mixture?
Colloidal
Organelle that is responsible for the synthesis of lipids?
Smooth ER
The "power plants" of the cell?
Mitochondria
The organelle that removes waste and foreign matter in the cell?
Lysosome
Involved in destroying old and damaged cells?
Lysosomes
The organelle that has enzymes that destroy harmful substances produced in metabolism?
Peroxisomes
Small membrane-bound bubbles that can be used to move material into or out of the cell?
Vesicles
In this process the cell uses lysosomes to safely recycle cellular structures fusing with and digesting waron out organelles?
Autophagy
Engulf bacteria and the use lysosomes to destroy them?
Phagocytes
A normal part of cell life when the cells are no longer needed "self -destruct" by releasing lysosomal enzymes into their own cytoplasm?
Autolysis
Their most important function is to breakdown free radicals?
Peroxisomes
Organelles that help to organize and divide the cell contents during cell division?
Centrioles
Average cell size is ?
10 to 15 micrometers
Multiple sub-units of chromosomes?
Genes
Sub-units of DNA and RNA?
Nucleotides
Nucleotides are composed of 4 units?
Sugar (RNA), ribose (DNA), phospate unit, and nitrogen base
Participates in protein synthesis, but is not part of the chromosome?
RNA
AGCT
DNA
AGCU
RNA
The location of DNA is in most of the?
Nucleus
The location of RNA is in most of the?
cytoplasm
Sugar: deoxyribose?
DNA
Sugar: ribose?
RNA
Double stranded helix formed by nucleotide pairing AT:GC?
DNA
Single strand?
RNA
Divided into genes that carry the nucleotide codes for the manufacture of proteins?
DNA
Manufactures proteins according to the nucleotide codes carried in the DNA?
RNA
Three types of of RNA nucleotide codes?
mRNA (messenger)
rRNA (ribosomal)
tRNA (transfer)
In DNA, nitrogen bases A (Adenine) always pairs with?
T (thymine)
In DNA, nitrogen bases G (Guanine) always pairs with?
C (cytosine)
Each nucleotide is comprised of three units?
phosphate unit
sugar unit
nitorgen base
DNA desciptive name?
Double Helix
In RNA Adenine (A) pairs with?
U Uracil
Before transcription begins, DNA breaks its weak bonds and uncoils into?
Single Strands
When a matching strand of RNA matches up with a strand of DNA?
Nucleotide Pairing
Leaves the nucleus and travels to a ribosome in the cytoplasm?
mRNA
The genetic messege contained within the mRNA is decoded to build amino acids into long chains that form proteins, a process termed?
Translation
With proteins makes up ribosomes, sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm?
rRNA (ribosomal)
Involved in the process of translating the involved message into a protein?
rRNA
Works with other forms of RNA to translate the gentic code into protein?
tRNA (transfer)
Carries an amino acid in each molecule that can be used to build a protein at the ribosome?
tRNA
Sex cells divide by the process?
meiosis
A process that cuts chormosome numbers in half to prepare for union of the egg and sperm in fetilization?
meiosis
Body cells or somatic cells divide by the process?
mitosis
In this process, each original parent cell becomes two identical daughter cells?
mitosis
Befor mitosis can occur, the gentic information (DNA) in the parent cell must be?
Doubled (so that each of the two new daughter cells have a complete set of chormosomes)
During mitosis, the human body must produce two cells with this # of chromosomes?
46
DNA duplicates in this phase?
Interphase
The stage in the life cell between one mitosis and the next?
Interphase
During this phase DNA uncoils from its double-stranded form?
Interphase
During this phase DNA each strand takes on a matching strand of nucleotides according to AT:GC pairing?
Interphase
During interphase, DNA strands are held together in a region called?
centromere
In this phase, the double strands of DNA return to their tightly wound spiral organization?
Prophase
In this phase the chromosomes become visible under a microscope?
Prophase
In this phase a spindle shape structure made of thin fibers begins to form between the two centrioles?
Prophase
In this phase, the chromosomes line up across the center (equator) of the cell attached to the spindle fibers?
Metaphase
In this phase the centromere splits and the duplicated chromosomes separate and begin to move toward opposite ends?
Anaphase
In this phase a membrane forms around each group of separated chromosomes, forming two new nuclei?
Telophase
During this phase the plasma membrane pinches off to divide the cell?
Telophase
In skeletal muscle cells the cell does not divide following nuclear?
Division (forms a single giant cell with multiple nuclei)
During mitosis all the organelles needed for the division process temporarily?
dissapear
Immature cells that retain the ability to divide and mature when necessary are known as?
Stem Cells
Serves as a barrier between the cell and its environment?
Plasma membrane
Passible to some molecules but not passible to others?
Semi-permeable (plasma membrane)
_______size determins the passability of a substance through the membrane?
Molecular
The term that describes movement through the plasma membrane that does not require energy?
Passive
T/F
Passive mechanism rely on internal or outside source of energy?
True
Movement where substances spread throughout their available space until they reach equilibrium?
Diffusion
Particles that follow their concentration gradient from higher concentration to lower concentration?
Diffusion
Type of movement that applies specifically to the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane/
Osmosis
A measure of force driving osmosis is called?
osmotic pressure (the tendency of a solution to drw water into it?
Type of movement where the passage of water containing dissolved material is forced through a membrane as a result of mechanical (pushing) force on one side?
Filtration
(materials out of capillaries into tissues)
The movement of material across the plasma membrane, via a transporter, in the direction of the concentration gradient?
Facilitated Diffusion
(example:glucose)
Movement across the membrane that requires energy is descibed as?
Active
The bulk movement of material INTO the cell?
Endocytosis
Two examples of Endocytosis?
Phagocytosis (eat)(large particles engulfed)
pinocytosis (drink) (droplets of fluid)
Described when the cell moves material out in vesicles is?
Exocytosis
(neurotransmitters from neurons)
For a normal fluid balance to be maintained, the fluid outside the cell must have the same concentration of dissolved substances (solutes) as the ?
Fluids inside the cell
0.9% is considered?
Normal saline
Solutions with concentrations equal to the concentration of the cytoplasm are described as?
isotonic
(tissue fluids and blood plasma)
A solution that is less concentrated than the intracellular fluid?
Hypotonic (draws in water)
(Red blood cells undergo hemolysis)
A solution that is more concentrated that the intracellular fluid?
Hypertonic (loses water)
(crenation)
Random movement of particles within the concentration gradient?
Diffusion
Movement of nutrients, electrolytes, gases, wastes and other soluble materials into and out of the cell?
Diffusion
Alterations of genes is known as?
mutations
A natural occurance in the process of cell division and is increased by exposure to harmful substances and radiation in the environment?
Mutations
0.9% salt:5% dextrose
Isotonic
Less than 0.9% salt or 5% dextrose?
Hypotonic
Higher than 0.9% salt or 5% dextrose?
hypertonic
cyt/o
cell
micr/o
small
-some
body
chrom/o-
color
end/o-
in, within
lys/o-
loosening, dissolving, separating
inter-
between
pro-
before, in front of
meta-
change
tel/o-
end
phag/o
to eat, ingest
pino
to drink
ex/o-
outside, out of, away from
hypo-
deficient, below, beneath
hem/o
blood
hyper-
above, over, excessive
The basic unit of life?
cell