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167 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The strong framework on which the body is constructed?
Skeleton
Bones, joints, and connective tissue form the?
Skeletal System
Functions of bone?
Framework of body, protect structures such as brain and spinal cord, work w/muscles as levers to produce movement, store calcium, produce RBC in red marrow
How many bones does the skeleton have?
206
The central portion is known as the?
Axial Skeleton
The extremeties make up the ________portion?
Appendicular Skeleton
Type of bone that is flat and slightly curved?
Example: Ribs & Skull
Flat Bones
Type of bone that is complicated in shape?
Example: Face & Vertebrae
Irregular Bones
Type of bone that is named for its elongated shape of the bone and not the actual length?
Example: phalanges, femur
Long Bones
makes up most of the arms and legs
Type of bone that is cuved shaped?
Example: Tarsals, Carpal
Short Bones
The long narrow shaft of the long bone is called?
Diaphysis (di-AF-ih-sis)
This part of the long bone contains bone marrow?
Medullary Cavity
The irregular end of the long bone that is farther away from the axial portion of the skeleton?
Distal Epiphysis
(eh-PIF-ih-siis)
The irregular end of the long bone that is closer to the axial portion of the skeleton?
Proximal Epiphysis
(eh-PIF-ih-siis)
The center of the diaphysis or long narrow shaft is?
Medullary cavity
Are considred organs with their own system of blood, lymphatic vessels, and nerves?
Bones
Bone tissue is known as?
Osseus Tissue
Type of Osseus tissue that is hard and dense?
Compact Bone
Type of Osseus tissue that makes up the main shaft of the long bone and outer layer of other bones?
Compact Bone
The cells in this type of bone are located in rings on bone tissue?
Compact Bone
The canal in the compact bone containing the nerves and blood vessels>
Haversian Canal
The bone cells live in the spaces between the rings called?
Lacunae
Each ring like unit or haversian canal and Lacunae make up the?
Haversian system
The haversian system is also known as?
Osteon
Forms channels accross the bone from one side of the shaft to the other are canals which house blood vessels & nerves?
Perforating or Volkmann Canals
Type of bone tissue that is made of meshwork of small, bony plates filled with red marrow?
Spongy or Cancellous Bone
Type of bone tissue that has more spaces?
Spongy or Cancellous Bone
Type of bone tissue that is found on the epiphysis of the long bones and at the center of other bones?
Cancellous Bone (Spongy)
Type of marrow that is found in the central cavities of long bones?
Yellow Marrow
Type of marrow that is found at the ends of longs bone and the center of other bones?
Red Marrow
Type of marrow that maufactures red blood cells (RBC)?
Red Marrow
Type of marrow that is composed mainly of fat?
Yellow Marrow
Bones are covered on the outside by a membrane called?
Periosteum
True/False
The joint region is covered by periosteum?
False
The inner layer of the periosteum contain what type of cells?
Osteoblasts
bone building cells
Type of bone cell that is essential for bone formation during growth and to repair injuries?
Osteoblasts
Plays an important role in nourishing the bone tissue?
Blood and lymph vessels found in the periosteum
A thin membrane that lines the marrow cavity of the bone?
Endosteum
During early development, the embyonic skeleton is composed mostly of?
Cartilage
The conversion of cartilage to bone and begins during the second and third months of embryonic life known as?
Ossification
During the ossification process, these type of bone cells become more active?
Osteoblasts
The material located between bone cells?
Matrix
A fibrous protein that gives strength and resilience to tissue?
Collagen
With the help from enzymes, calcium compounds are deposited in the matrix by this type of bone cell?
Osteoblasts
Maufactures the matrix and collagen?
Osteoblasts
Once ossification (hardening of the bone) has occured, the osteoblasts are known as?
Osetocytes
Are mature bone cells?
Osteocytes
bone maintaining cells
Cells that do not perfom new bone tissue, but maintain the current bone?
Osteocytes
Later in life to repair or remodel bone, Osteoblasts develop from stem cells in the_________and________?
Peri and Endo Osteums
Develops from a white blood cell or monocyte, regulated by hormones and vitamin D?
Osteoclasts
Large multi-nucleated cells are responsible for resorption?
Osteoclasts
The break down of bone tissue is necessary for remodeling and repair of bone during growth and after injuries, called?
Resorption
This vitamin promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestines?
Vitamin D
Type of hormone from the thyroid gland that promotes the uptake of calcium in bone tissue?
Calcitonin hormone
The hormone released from the parathyroid glands that cause bone resorption and release calcium into the blood?
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
In this type of bone transformation from cartilage to bone begins in the center of the shaft during fetal development?
Long bone
At birth, secondary bone forming centers develop across the ends of the bone, what are they?
Epiphyseal Plates
As bone grows in length the shaft is remodeled to grow?
Wider
In children bones are more pliable because?
The ossification process has not completed
In the elderly the bones are more fragile because?
The process that renews bone slows
Raised areas, depressions, holes, that serve as joints, muscle attach, and passages?
Bone markings
Projections include?
Head, Process, Condyle, Crest, and Spine
These bone projections are rounded, knoblike end separated from the rest of the bone by slender region, the neck?
Head
Example: Femur and its epiphysis
A large projection of a bone, such as the upper part of the ulna that forms the elbow?
Process
Example: Xyphoid process
A rounded projection usually the above projection is labeled epicondyle?
Condyle
A distinct border or ridge, often rough, such as over the top of the illeum (hip bone)?
Crest
A sharp projection from the surface of a bone such as the spine of teh scapula (shoulder blade)?
Spine
Also, vertebrae
A hole that allows a vessel or nerve to pass through or between bones?
Foramen or Foramina (p)
An airspace found in some skull bones?
Sinus
(sphenoid sinus)
A depression on a bone surface?
Fossa or fossae (p)
(infra and supra spinous fossa)
A short channel or passageway such as the channel in the temporal bone of the skull that leads to the ear?
Meatus
This group of bones consists of 80 bones and includes the bony framework of the head and trunk?
Axial Skeleton
This group of bones consists of 126 bones and forms the framework for the extremties and for the shoulder, hips, and pelvis?
Appendicular Skeleton
Type of technique that allows healthcare providers to visualize hidden structures without cutting into patients?
Landmarking
(CPR Xphoid process reference)
Chamber enclosing brain, houses ears and forms part of the eye socket, has 8 bones?
Cranium (8)
Forms the face and chambers for sensory organs, has 14 bones?
Facial portion (14)
U-shaped bone under lower jaw; used for muscle attachments (1)?
Hyoid (1)
Transmits sound waves in inner ear, (3) bones?
Ossicles (3)
Encloses the spinal cord (26) bones?
Vertebral Column (26)
Anterior bone of the thorax?
Sternum
Encloses the organs of the thorax (12 pair ribs?
Thorax
Anterior, between sternum and scapula?
Clavicle
Posterior, anchors muscles that move arm?
Scapula
Proximal Arm Bone?
Humerus
Medial bone of arm?
Ulna
(Anatomical position inside)
Lateral bone of the forearm?
Radius
(anatomical position)
Wrist bones (8)?
Carpals (8)
Bones of palm (5)?
Metacarpals (5)
Bones in the fingers (14)?
Phaoanges (14)
Join sacrum & coccyx of vertebral column to form bony pelvis (2)?
Os Coxae (2) (Pelvis)
Thigh bone; largest long bone in the body?
Femur
Kneecap?
Patella
Medial bone of the leg?
Tibia (Larger bone)
Lateral bone of the leg?
Fibula (smaller bone)
Ankle bones (7)?
Tarsal bones (7)
Bones of instep/ soles of feet(5)?
Metatarsals (5)
Bones of toes (14)?
Phalanges (14)
Divided into the cranium and the facial portion?
Skull
Rounded chamber that encloses the brain and is composed of (8) distinct cranial bones?
Cranium
Type of cranial bone that forms the forehead, anterior of the skull roof and the roof of the eye orbit?
Frontal Bones
Lateral bone of the forearm?
Radius
(anatomical position)
Wrist bones (8)?
Carpals (8)
Bones of palm (5)?
Metacarpals (5)
Bones in the fingers (14)?
Phaoanges (14)
Join sacrum & coccyx of vertebral column to form bony pelvis (2)?
Os Coxae (2) (Pelvis)
Thigh bone; largest long bone in the body?
Femur
Kneecap?
Patella
Medial bone of the leg?
Tibia (Larger bone)
Lateral bone of the leg?
Fibula (smaller bone)
Ankle bones (7)?
Tarsal bones (7)
Bones of instep/ soles of feet(5)?
Metatarsals (5)
Bones of toes (14)?
Phalanges (14)
Divided into the cranium and the facial portion?
Skull
Rounded chamber that encloses the brain and is composed of (8) distinct cranial bones?
Cranium
Type of cranial bone that forms the forehead, anterior of the skull roof and the roof of the eye orbit?
Frontal Bones
Facial bone, the only movable bone in the skull?
Mandible
Breastbone, with the ribs protects the heart and lungs?
Sternum
Collarbone, Joins the sternum & clavicle to support the shoulder?
Clavicle
Shoulder Blade, attaches the muscles that move the arm?
Scapula
8 short cube shaped bones of teh wrist - arranged in 2 rows of 4 each?
Carpals
The 14 finger and toes?
Phalanges
Lateral lower leg bone, not weight bearing?
Fibula (smaller one)
Medial lower leg bone (on the big toe side), weight bearing?
Tibia (bigger one)
Ankle, foot bones 7 in each foot?
Tarsals
5 bones that form the framework of the instep of the foot?
Metatarsals
Facial bone - near inside corner of eye?
Lacrimal
Projection of the temporal bone behind the external part of the ear?
Mastoid process
Joins the frontal bone w/ the parietal bones of the skull?
coronal suture
Joins the parietal bones with the occipital bone?
Lambdoidal suture
Forms the forehead & the roof of the eye socket?
Frontal
Forms most of the top and side walls of the cranium?
Parietal bones
The prominence of the cheeks?
Zygomatic process
Upper jaw bones - fused?
Maxilla
Lower jaw bone
Mandible
Form the bridge of the nose?
Nasal
Shaped like a blade of a plow, forms lower part of the nasal septum?
Vomer
Form the back part of the hard palate?
Palatine bones
Extend horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavities?
2 inferior nasal conchae
The paired superior and middle conchae are part of what facial bone?
Ethmoid
Projects dorsally from the bony arch that encircles the spinal cord?
Spinous process
Projecting laterally on each side and are attachments for muscles?
Transverse process
Located in the neck, labeled C1-C7?
Cervicle Vertebrea
The first cervicle vertebra or C1, supports the head when skull rocks (nodding)?
Atlas
The second cervicle vertebra or C2, serves as a pivot when head is turned side to side?
Axis
The upright toothlike part in the Axis is known as?
Dens (pivot point)
12 in number T1-T12, are located in the chest, ribs extend, has longer spinous process that points downward?
Thoracic vertebrae
5 are located in the small of the back L1-L5, Larger & heavier to support more weight, all processes are shorter and thicker?
Lumbar vertebrae
5 seperate bones in the child, but fuse together to form a single bone as an adult?
Sacral vertebrea (child) or Sacrum (adult)
When viewed from the side the vertebral column can be seen to have this number of curves?
4, corresponding with the sections of vertebrae
T-shaped portion of the sternum, superior to the sternum body, joins laterally on the right/left with clavicle?
Manubrium
The point of the manubrium where the clavicle joins is called?
clavicle notch
Long and bladelike, joins along each side with the ribs 2 thru 7?
Sternum body
Where the manubrium joins the body of the sternum, slight elevation is called?
Sternal angle
First 7 pairs of ribs attached directly to the sternum by costal cartilage?
True Ribs
5 pairs of ribs, 8 9 10 attach to the cartilage of the rib above?
False Ribs
11, 12 ribs have no anterior attachement at all and are known as?
Floating ribs
yes/no
Floating ribs are false ribs?
Yes
The space between the ribs is called?
intercostal spaces
This division of the appendicular skeleton consists of the shoulder, arm (BTWN the shoulder & elbow), forearm, wrist, hand, fingers?
Upper Appendicular skeletal
This division of the append skeleton consists of hip, thigh, leg, ankle, foot, and toes?
Lower Appendicular Skeletal
Joins the sternum anteriorly and the scapula laterally and helps to support the shoulder?
Clavicle
This part of the scapula is the posterior raised edge that can be felt behind the shoulder in the upper portion of the back?
Scapula Spine
Muscles that move the arm attachment to fossae (depressions)?
supraspinous fossa (superior to the scapular spine)
and infraspinous fossa (inferior to the spine)
The process that joins the clavicle, felt as the highest point in the shoulder?
Acromion
Forms a ball and socket joint with the arm bone (humerous?
Glenoid Cavity
Medial to the glenoid cavity is the________where muscles attach?
Caracoid process
The proximal bone in the arm?
Humerus