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209 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
This systems consists of a group of glands that produces regulatory chemicals called hormones?
Endocrine System
The _____ system and the _____ system work together to control and coordinate all other systems of the body?
Endocrine and nervous
This system involves only chemical stimuli, and these chemical messengers have widespread effects on the body?
The effects of the endocrine system occur _______ over long periods of time?
Chemical messengers that have specific regulatory effects on certain cells or organs?
Hormones regulate?
Growth, metabolism, reproduction, and behavior
Specific tissues acted on by each hormone is the?
Target tissue
The cells that make up the target tissues have_______ in the plasma membrane or within the cytoplasm to which the hormone is attached?
Once a hormone binds to a receptor on or in the target cells what happens?
The hormone effects cell activities, regulating the manufacture of proteins, changing the permeability of the membrane, or affecting metabolic reactions.
Chemically hormones fall into two 2 categories, which are?
Amino acid compounds and steriods
These hormones are proteins or related compounds also made of amino acids?
Amino acid compounds
All hormones except those of the adrenal cortex and the sex glands fall into this category of chemical hormone?
Amino acid compounds
These hormones are types of lipids derived from the steroid cholesterol?
Are produced by the adrenal cortex and the sex glands?
If a chemical hormone has a suffix -one, what type is it?
Steroid (progesterONE, testosterONE)
What are hormones and what are some effects of hormones?
Hormones are chemical messengers that have specific regulatory effects on certain cells or organs, growth, metabolism, reproduction, behavior
What type of feedback is normally used to regulate homeostasis in the endocrine system?
Describe negative feedback pertaining to the pituitary hormone thyroid-stimulating-hormone TSH?
Draw diagram
Less commonly positive feedback occurs, what are examples of this type of feedback in the endocrine system?
Menstruation and labor
Some hormones follow a rhythmic pattern, example?
Hormones of the adrenal cortex follow a 24hour cycle related to a person's sleeping pattern, with the level of secretion greatest just before rising and least at bedtime.
Hormone levels are normally kept within a specific range, what is the most common method used to regulate secretions of hormones?
Negative Feedback
A small gland the size of a cherry, located in a saddlelike depression of the sphenoid bone just posterior to the point where the optic nerves cross?
Pituitary or Hypophysis
It is surrounded by bone except where it connects with the hypothalamus?
Pituitary or Hypophysis
The pituitary or hypophysis connects with the hypothalamus by a stalk called?
The pituitary or hypophysis is divided into two parts, what are they?
Anterior and posterior lobes
Often called the Master Gland?
Pituitary or hypophysis
Releases hormones that affect the working of other glands such as thyroid, gonads, and adrenal glands?
Pituitary or hypophysis
Hormones that stimulate other glands may be recognized by the suffix?
-tropin (acting on) (thyrotropin)
This gland is controlled by the hypothalamus?
Pituitary or hypophysis
Releasing hormones are indicated with what abbreviation?
One of the tiny glands located behind the thyroid gland?
Parathyroid gland
The largest of the endocrine glands, located in the neck?
The gland in the brain that is regulated by light?
An organ that contains islets?
The endocrine gland composed of a cortex, a medulla, each with specific funtions?
Adrenal gland
The part of the brain that controls the anterior pituitary?
The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates milk synthesis?
The main hormone of the adrenal medulla that, among other actions, raises blood pressure and increases the heart rate?
The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex?
A hormone produced by the ovaries?
The hormone from the adrenal cortex that regulates sodium and potassium reabsorption in the kidney tubules?
A gonadotropic hormone?
Follicle stimulating hormone
A hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus?
Antidiuretic hormone
A hormone that raises the blood calcium level?
Parathyroid hormone
A hormone that lowers the blood glucose level?
A pancreatic hormone that raises the blood glucose level?
An adrenal hormone that raises the blood glucose level?
A hormone that aids in the maturation of T lymphocytes?
The hormone produced by the pineal gland?
A hormone that lowers blood pressure?
Atrial natriuretic factor
Estrogen is a?
Steroid hormones are derived from?
A building block of growth hormone is?
Amino acid
Releasing hormones RH are produced in the?
Prolactin is an example of?
Protein hormone
An androgen is?
Male sex hormone
A hormone NOT produced by the thyroid gland?
Hormones produce by the thyroid gland?
calcitonin, thyroxine, triiodothyronine
The hormone that causes milk EJECTION from the breast?
A hormone derived from cholesterol?
Hormones not derived from cholesterol?
Thyroid hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone
The pituitary hormone that regulates the activity of the thyroid gland?
Erythroprotein is sythensized in the?
Releasing hormones are sent from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary by way of a special circulatory pathway called?
Portal System
When the blood glucose level decreases to less than average, the islet cell of the panceas release less insulin, this is an example of the regulatory mechanism called?
Negative feedback
The hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce ACTH, which in turn, stimulates hormone production by the?
Adrenal cortex
The element needed for the production of thyroxine is?
Local hormones that have a variety of effects, including the promotion of inflammation and the production of uterine contractions?
A hormone secreted from the posterior pituitary that is involved in water balance?
Antidiuretic hormone
The primary target tissue for prolactin?
mammary gland
ACTH acts on the?
Adrenal cortex
Cortisol and the pancreatic hormone ______ both raise blood sugar?
The ovaries and testes produce this type of hormone?
Cortisol is produced by the?
Adrenal cortex
Islet cells are found in the?
ADH and oxytocin are secreted by which lobe of the pituitary?
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is produced by the?
Explain why hormones , although they circulate throughout the body, exercise their effects only on specific target cells?
write answer
List two differences between the endocrine system and the nervous system?
endocrine system is slow response ovder a long period of time, while the nervous system is fast in a short period of time
Name three organs other than the endocrine glands that produce hormones, and name a hormone produced in each organ?
Heart (atrial natriuretic peptide), kidney (erythroprotein), stomach (digestive hormone)
Compare the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland?
Write essay
The hormones produced in the anterior pituitary are not released until messengers arrive from the hypothalamus, these messengers are?
Releasing Hormones
The circulatory detour, which enables blood to flow through the capillaries and delivers the hormones that stimulate the release of anterior pitiutary secretions?
Portal system
Growth hormone
Type of hormone that promotes growth of ALL body tissues?
GH Growth hormone
Type of hormone that Stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones?
TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Type of hormone that Stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortical hormones; aids in protecting body in stress situations (injury, pain)?
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic
Type of hormone that Stimulates secretion of milk by mammary glands?
PRL Prolactin
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Type of hormone that Stimulates growth and hormone activity of ovarian follicles?
FSH Follicle stimulating hormone
Type of hormone that stimulates growth of testes; promotes development of sperm?
FSH follicle stimulating hormone
luteinizing hormone
Type of hormone that Causes development of corpus luteum at site of ruptured ovarian follicle in female?
LH Lunteinizing hormone
Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
Type of hormone that stimulates secretion of testosterone in males?
ICSH Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
Anterior Pituitary Hormones?
Posterior Pituitary Hormones?
ADH, Oxytocin
Antidiuretic hormone
Type of hormone that Promotes reabsorption of water in kidney tubules; at high concentration stimulates constriction of blood vessels?
ADH Antidiuretic hormone
Type of hormone that causes contraction of uterine muscle; causes ejection of milk from mammary glands?
Thyroid Hormones?
T4, T3
Type of hormone that Increases metabolic rate, influencing both physical and mental activities, required for normal growth?
T4 and T3
Thyroxine, Triiodothyronine
Type of hormone that Decreases calcium level in blood?
Parathyroid hormones
Type of hormone that Regulates exchange of calcium between blood and bones, increases calcium level in blood?
PTH Parathyroid hormones
What hormone increases calcium in the blood and what hormone decreases calcium in the blood?
Adrenal Cortex hormones?
Cortisol, Alderosterone, Sex hormones
Type of hormone that Aids in metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; active during stress?
Type of Adrenal cortex hormone that is 95% of glucocorticoids?
Type of hormone that Aids in regulating electrolytes and water balance?
Type of Adrenal Cortex hormone that is 95% mineralocorticoids?
Type of hormone that May influence secondary sexual characteristics?
Sex hormones
Pancreatic hormones?
Insulin, Glucagon
Type of hormone that is needed for transport of glucose into cells, required for cellular metabolism of foods?
Type of hormone that decreases blood sugar?
Adrenal Medullar hormones?
Epinephrine and norephinephrine
Type of hormone that Increases blood pressure and heart rate; activates cells influenced by sympathetic NS plus many not be affected by the SNS?
Epinephrine and norephinephrine
Type of hormone that stimulates liver to release glucose, thereby increasing blood sugar levels?
Which pancreatic hormone increases and which one decreases blood sugar level?
Hormones of the Testes?
Type of hormone that stimulates growth and development of sexual organs (testes, penis)?
Type of hormone that developes a secondary sexual characteristic such as hair growth on body and face and deepening of voice?
Type of hormone that stimulates maturation of sperms cells?
Hormones of the ovaries?
Estrogens (estradiol), and progesterone
Type of hormone that Stimulates growth of sexual organs (uterus, tubes)?
Type of hormone that develop secondary sexual organs such as breasts, plus changes in pelvis to ovoid (broader shape)?
Type of hormone that stimulates development of secretory parts of mammary glands?
Type of hormone that prepares uterine linning for implantaion of fertilized ovum?
Type of hormone that aids in maintaining pregnancy?
Hormones of the Thymus?
Type of hormone that promotes growth of T cells active in immunity?
Hormones of the Pineal?
Type of hormone that regulates mood, sexual development, and daily cycles in response to the amount of light in the environment?
Releasing Hormones
Inhibiting hormones
What type of anterior pituitary hormone suppress both growth hormone and prolactin?
IH Inhibiting hormones
If a hormone is designed to inhibit a growth hormone, how would you label it?
GHIH= growth hormone-inhibiting hormone
The only hormones that are regulated by IH and RH?
GH, TSH, ACTH, PRL, FSH, LH, ICSH (anterior pituitary)
What does PIH mean?
Prolactin inhibiting hormone
Hormones of the posterior pituitary are produced in the?
Hormones produced in the hypothalamus are stored where?
Posterior pituitary
The posterior pituitary hormones release is controlled by?
Nerve impulses
The nerve impulses that release pituitary hormones travel by?
Pathways or tracts between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary.
What part of the brain controls the pituitary?
Somatotropin is also known as?
GH growth hormone
If there is a deficiency of GH what will happen?
The person will remain small, though well proportioned.
Type of hormone that stimulates protein synthesis and is needed for maintenance and repair of cells?
Type of hormone that stimulates liver to release fatty acids for energy during time of stress?
Type of hormone that stimulates the devlopment of eggs in the ovaries and sperm in the testes?
Classified as gonadotropins?
FSH and LH
Type of hormones that act on the gonads to regulate growth, development, and function of the reproductive system?
Inadequate amounts of ADH, cause excessive water loss and result in a disorder called?
diabetes insipidus
Type of gland that has two roughly oval lateral lobes on eitherside of the larynx?
Connects the larynx to the thyroid?
The principal thyroid hormone?
T4 Thyroxine
T4, what does the 4 mean?
The number of iodine atoms in each molecule
T3 has how many atoms of iodine?
3 three
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Type of hormone that darkens skin and hair by stimulating melanocytes to manufacture the pigment melanin?
A pre-curser molecule from ACTH, which enzymes cut into ACTH and MSH?
The cartilage of the larynx?
What two types of metabolism do T4 and T3 increase?
Energy metabolism and Protein metabolism
These four tiny glands are embedded in the posterior capsule of the thyroid?
Parathyroid glands
PTH causes the kidney to conserve what?
When calcium is high what hormone is produced, and when calcium is low what hormone is produced?
The active form of vitamin D?
Calcitriol is produced in what organs?
Liver and kidney
What are the three hormones that work together to regulate the amount of calcium in the blood and provide calcium for bone maintenance and other functions?
Calcitricol, Calcitonin, PTH
What mineral is regulated by calcitonin and PTH?
Two small glands located superior to the kidneys?
Adrenal Glands
This gland has two parts that act as seperate glands?
Adrenal Gland
The inner area of the adrenal gland?
Adrenal medulla
The outer portion of the adrenal gland?
Adrenal cortex
The principle hormone released from the adrenal medulla is?
Epinepherine or adrenaline
Norepinephrine is also called?
Hormones referred to as the flight or fight hormones?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Epinephrin and norepinephrine instead of being released into the blood stream function as?
The main hormone from the adrenal medulla is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system?
Epinephrine or adrenaline
Another name for cortisol?
What are the three categories of hormones released by the adrenal cortex?
Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and sex hormones
What effect does cortisol have on glucose levels in the blood?
Increase the level of glucose in the blood stream
A type of gland that has both endocrine and exocrine secretions?
Islets in the pacreas are also known as?
ilsets of Langerhans
The islets make up which portion of the pacreas?
Endocrine portion
The cells surrounding the islets secrete digestive juices and make up which portion of the pancreas?
Exocrine portion
The cell that secrete digestive juices secrete them through ducts into the?
small intestines
The most important horomone secreted by islets is?
Type of hormone that is active in the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane, thus increasing glucose uptake?
Once inside a cell, what substance is metabolized for energy?
When islets fail to produce enough insulin or the body does not respond to the insulin, what disease is this?
Diabetes mellitus
What two hormones produced by the islets of the pancreas act to regulate glucose levels in the blood?
insulin and glucagon
All male sex hormones are classified as?
A mass of lymphoid tissue that lies in the upper part of the chest superior to the heart?
Thymus Gland
After T cells (T lymphocytes) leave the thymus gland where do they go?
Into the lymphnodes of the body
A small flattened, cone shape structure located posterior to the midbrain and connected to the roof of the third ventricle?
Pineal Gland
Type of hormone that appears to delay the onset of puberty, Pinneal gland?
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Type of hormone that is produced by the atria of the heart in response to their increased filling with blood?
Type of heart hormone that increases loss of sodium by the kidneys and lowers blood pressure?
Placenta secretes hormones during?
Type of localized hormones made up of most body tissue and are produced, act, and are rapidly inactivated in or close to their sites of origin?
What are some hormones released in time of stress?
ACTH, GH, T4, T3, Insulin, sex hormones
Type of hormone that stimulates growth in most body tissues?