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152 Cards in this Set

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Defined as various determinations that provide information about the basic body conditions of the patient?
Vital Signs
Four main vital signs are?
Temperature, pulse, respirations, blood pressure
Pain scale is 1 to 10, 1 being______ and ten being______?
Minimal pain, severe pain
A measurement of the balance between heat lost and heat produced by the body?
Temperature
Four areas of temperature measurement of the body?
Oral, rectal, axillary, aural
The pressure of the blood felt against the wall of an artery as the ehart contracts and relaxes or beats?
Pulse
Refers to the number of beats per minute?
Rate
Refers to the regularity of the pulse?
Rhythm
Refers to the strength of a pulse?
Volume
Most common artery to take pulse?
Radial artery
Reflect the breathing rate of the patient?
Respirations
The force exerted by the blood against the arterial wall?
Blood Pressure
What are the two reading or Lubb-Dupp?
Systolic and diastolic
The pulse taken with a stethoscope at the apex of the heart?
Apical Pulse (apex-base)
Average temperature taken orally is?
98.6F (37C)
Normal RANGE of temperature taken orally?
97.6-99.6F (36.5-37.5C)
Average temperature taken rectally?
99.6F (37.6C)
Normal RANGE of temperature taken rectally?
98.6-100.6F (37-38.1C)
Average temperature taken Axillary or groin?
97.6F (36.4C)
Normale RANGE of temperature taken axillary or groin?
96.6-98.6F (36-37C)
Oral temperatures taken by mouth thermometer must be left in place for how many minutes?
3-5 minutes
Rectal temperature thermometer must be left in place for how many minutes?
3-5 min
Axillary and groin temperature themometer must be left in place for how many minutes?
10 min
Aural thermometer is special an reads core temperature and must be ______to accomodate for other readings?
Offset
Factor that increase body temperature are?
Illness, infection, exercise, excitement, outside environment temp
Very low body temperature reading of BELOW 95degreeF?
Hypothermia
Very high reading when body temperature EXCEEDS 104 F?
Hyperthermia
An Elevated body temperature, usually above 101 F?
Fever
Pyrexia is another term for what?
Fever (Pyr=fire, ia=pertaining to)
Brain damage will occur if the body temperature reaches ?
ABOVE 106F
Death will occur if body temperature falls below?
BELOW 93F
Consists of a slender glass tube containing mercury or alcohol with red dye, which expands when exposed to heat?
Clinical thermometers
Type of thermometer that has a shorter, rounder bulb, and is usually marked with a blue tip?
Oral thermometer
Type of thermometer that has a short stubby rounded bulb and marked with a RED tip?
Rectal
Never pore mercury down a drain or sweep it up because?
Mercury is highly toxic must be put in airtight container label as mercury
Tympanic thermometer take what type of temperature?
Ear usually 1 to 2 seconds
When documenting the patients temperature on their records what letters correspond with type of temp taken?
R=Rectal
Ax=Axillary
T=Aurally
When there is not a specific letter, it is assumed that temp was taken orally
Glass thermometers are soaked in disinfecting solution for how many minutes?
30 min
Always identify yourself and your______?
Patient
When taking temperature anally it is important to never?
NEVER EVER Let go of the thermometer
Never force the thermometer when taking temperature this way?
Rectally, hemmoroids, colonoscopy, diarrhea
Major sites of the body to take a pulse are?
Temporal, carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, politeal, dorsalis pedis
The site of the pulse at the side of the forehead?
Temporal
The site of the pulse at the neck
Carotid
The site of the pulse at the inner aspect of forearm at the crease of the elbow?
Brachial
The site of the pulse at the inner aspect of the wrist, above the thumb?
Radial
The site of the pulse at the inner aspect of the upper thigh?
Femoral
The site of the pulse behind the knee?
Popliteal
The site of the pulse at the top of the foot arch?
Dorsalis pedis
The most common site of pulse reading?
Radial artery (wrist)
General range of 60 to 90 BPM?
Adults
General range of 60-70 BPM?
Adult men
General range of 65-80 BPM?
Adult women
General range of 70-90 BPM?
Children aged over 7years
General range of 80-110 BPM?
Children from 1-7
General range of 100-160 BPM?
Infants
Pulse rate UNDER 60 BPM is termed?
Bradycardia
Pulse rate OVER 100 BPM (except in children)is termed?
Tachycardia
Rhythm can be described in two terms?
Regular and Irregular
An Irregular or abnormal rhythm usually caused by a defect in the electrical conduction pattern of the heart?
Arrythmia
Volume or strength of the pulse is described using words such as?
strong, weak, thready, bounding
Factors that increase pulse rate?
exercise, stimulant drugs, excitement, fever, shock, nervous tension,
Factors that decrease pulse rate?
sleep, depressant drugs, heart disease, coma, physical training etc
The process of taking in O2 and expelling CO2 from the lungs and respiratory tract?
Respirations
One respiration consists of what?
One inspiration (breathing in) and one expiration (breathing out)
Inspiration means what?
Breathing in
Expiration means what?
Breathing out
Normal rate for respiration in_____ is 14 to 18 or 12 to 20
Breaths per minute?
Adults
Normal rate for respiration in_________ is 16-25 breaths per minute?
Children 1-7
Normal rate for respiration in________is 30-50 breaths per minute?
Infants
Character of respiration refers to?
The depth and quality
Words used to describe the character of respirations are?
deep, shallow, labored, difficult, stertorous, moist
Difficult or labored breathing is termed?
Dyspnea (dys=difficult, pnea=breath)
Absence of respiration, usually temporary is termed?
Apnea (a=without, pnea=breath)
Respiratory rate ABOVE 25 respirations per minute is termed?
Tachypnea (tachy=fast, pnea=breath)
Slow respiratory rate usually BELOW 10 respirations per minute is termed?
Bradypnea (brady=slow, pnea=breath)
Sever dyspnea in which breathing is very difficult in any position other than sitting erect or standing is termed?
Orthopnea (orth=straight, pnea=breath)
Respirations - periods of dyspnea followed by periods of apnea; frequently noted in dying patients is termed?
Cheyne-Stokes
Bubbling or noisy sounds cause by fluids or mucus in the air passage is termed?
Rales
Difficult breathing with highpitched whistling or sighing sound during expiration; caused by the narrowing of the bronchioles is termed?
Wheezing
A dusky, bluish discoloration fo skin, lips, and or nail beds as a result of decreased O2 and increased CO2 in the blood stream is termed?
Cyanosis
In clinical thermometers each line is what of an degree?
2/10ths
The heart is weak and does not pump enough blood to produce a pulse termed?
A pulse deficit
If a pulse deficit occurs one medical person should take a radial pulse while the other takes the apical pulse, to determine the deficit you?
Subtract the radial pulse rate from the apical pulse rate
To document pulse in the patients records it must be charted how?
According to the agency policy
Blood pressure is read how?
In millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
The instrument to take BP is called?
Sphygmomanometer
Type of BP measurement that occurs when the left ventricle of the heart is contracting and pushing blood into the artieries?
Systolic
A normal systolic reading is?
120 mm Hg
Normal RANGE for systolic reading is from?
60-90 mm Hg
The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure?
Pulse Pressure
Normal range for adult pulse pressure is?
30-50 mm Hg
Indicated when BP is GREATER THAN 140 mm Hg? 140/90
Hypertension, or high blood pressure
Causes for high blood pressure? AS A TAKO
aging,
Salt-high intake,
arterisclerosis
thyroid dificiency,
Anxiety,
kidney disease,
obesity,
Indicated when BP is LESS THAN 100 mm Hg? 100/60
Hypotension, or low blood pressure
Common causes for low blood pressure? HHDDSS
heart failure, hemorrhage, dehydration, depression, sever burns, and shock
Various factors can influence BP reading which are? FEAR
F=Force of the heart beat
E=Elasticity of arteries
A=Artery blood volume
R=Resistance of arterial system
Factors that may cause changing in BP readings?
Lying sown, sitting position, standing position
Blood pressure is always recorded on chart as a?
Fraction EX 120/80
If someone BP is 135/75, what is the diastolic number?
75 (denominator)
Which type of spygmomamometer is recommeded by OSHA and does not have mercury?
Aneroid
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that the patient sits _____min and that 2 seperate readings are taken with a minimum wait of _____min?
Quietly for 5 minutes, average of two are taken with wait of 30 minutes between
Immediate care that is given to the victim of an injury or illness to minimize the effect of the injury or illness until experts can take over is ?
First Aid
The first step of first aid is to?
Recognize that an emergency exists
Always evaluated your environment for signs of emergencies with all of your senses which are?
Smell, sight, touch, hearing, taste.
Make sure the suroundings are _____ before you attempt to give first aid?
Safe
The second step of first aid is to?
Take appropriate action to help victims or victim
First Aid
If the accident scene is not safe what should you do?
Call for help 911
If the scene appears safe what is the next step of first aid?
Determine which victim shows NO sign of consciousness, tap gently and call to that person
After determining a victim is unconscious what is your next step?
To ask anyone who is conscious what happened
NEVER move an injured victim unless?
Victim is in a dangerous situation (Fire, smoke, flood, Carbon monoxide, or fatal fumes, dangerous traffic)
First Aid
After determining if the victim is in a safe area or needed to be moved, what is the next step?
Call Emergency services, or instruct others to do so, give as much information as possible about the condition of the person and the environment
First Aid
Why should you give your telephone number from were you are calling emergency services from?
Encase of disconnection the Emergency operator can call you back.
If you are alone when do you call emergency services?
Before providing assistance to an uncoscious:
adult
Child 8 years or older
infant/child with high risk for heart problems
First Aid
If the victim is a child and you are the only one there what should you do?
See if you can find anyone by visually scanning the area, if not, If the child is small enough for you to carry, carry him and go call for help
First Aid
If you are alone and the victim is conscious what is your next step?
Assess if CPR is needed
Unconscious infant or chiod less than 8
Submersed in water or drowning
Cardiac arrest by trauma
Cardia arrest by drug overdose
If you suspect a drug overdose, what should you look for in the immediate area?
Empty/filled pill bottles open or not.
If the victim is a candidate for CPR and you are the only one there, what is your next step?
Continue providing care for 1 minute and then go to the nearest phone and call EMS
If the victim is conscious or if the victim is a child, ask permission from the victim or the victims parents to give?
CPR
If no parent or victim is not responding, you should always _______ permission and start CPR?
ASSUME
First Aid
If the person refuses to give consent to you, what should you do?
DO NOT PROCEED
A method of prioritizing treatment, if more that one victim is termed?
Triage
Always attend to ________ ______ illnesses or injuries first?
Life-Threatening
If the victim is conscious what information should you try to get from them so you can relay it to EMS?
Ask their pain-level, and ask what happened
Always ________ the victim thoroughly and note any abnormal signs or symptoms?
Examine
After checking the victim for signs and symptoms, what is the next step?
Check vital signs
First Aid
What should you note while checking vitals?
Temperature, color, and moistness of skin. Compare pupils, look for fluids or blood draining from mouth, eyes, and ears.
First Aid
After checking vitals and assesing the victim, what is the next step?
Report any abnormalities to the EMS when they arrive on scene
First Aid
Always check for any ID on the victim because?
They may be diapetic, or have an illness or disease, (EX: diabetic bracelt, heart patient)
During your interaction with the victim always do what?
Reassure the victim
First Aid
If the victim is vomiting or unconscious why should you not give them anything to eat or drink?
Because you do not know what is causing the syptoms or injuries
First-aid
If it is too hot or too cold outside what should you do?
Try to get them to a warm area or get blankets, or to a cool area, it is important not to get the victim overheated!
Do not make a diagnosis or discuss any condition the victim may be in with persons at the scene? True/False
True
CPR is?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
What is the basic purpose of CPR?
To keep oxygenated blood flowing to other parts of the body and other vital organs until the heart and lungs start working again.
Occurs when the heart stops beating and the victim stops breathing?
Clinical death
Refers to the death of body cells and occurs 4 to 6 minutes after clinical death?
Biological death
If CPR can be started IMMEDIATELY AFTER clinical death, the victim MAY still be ??
REVIVED
What are the ABCD's of CPRS"
A=Airway
B=breathing
C=circulation
D=defibrillation
What is the common way to open a victims airway?
Head Tilt Chin Lift method
When should you not use head tilt chin lift?
If you suspect any injury to the neck or spinal cord
First Aid
If you suspect a neck or upper spinal injury, what method should you use to get airway open?
Jaw=thrust maneuver
First Aid
When using the jaw-thrust method, where should you position your fingers?
Grasp the angle of the victim's LOWER jaw on either side
During head tilt chin lift, where should your hands be located on the victim?
One hand on the victims forehead, and with the other hand put fingertips under bony part of jaw near chin
B in CPR means that you breathe into the victims mouth or nose to supply oxygen or ventilation?
Breathing
First Aid
Why is it important to pinch the victims nose shut and apply a tight seal around the mouth?
So that the air can be concentrated to the lungs
By applying pressure to a certain area of the breastbone, the heart is compressed between the sternum and the vertebral column, what does this do?
It will keep the heart beating to give oxygen to other organs
How do you document apical pulse on a chart?
80 (AP)
What must be charted for pulse rate?
Rate, rythm, volume
What causes the lubb-dupp sound?
The closing of the heart valves as the blood flows through the chambers of the heart
When would you use an apical pulse?
Infants and childre
Pressure of blood in the VEIN,?
Pulse