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122 Cards in this Set

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The continous one way circuit of blood through the body in the blood vessels is known as?
Circulation
The prime mover that propels blood throughout the body is?
Heart
How many pumps per minute does the heart pump?
average 72
The pointed, inferior portion of the heart is the?
apex
The broad, superior portion of the heart is the?
Base
Is the area of attachment for the large vessels carrying blood into and out of the heart?
Base
Name the three types of different layers lining the heart?
Endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
The thin smooth layer of epithelial cells that line the hearts interior?
Endocardium
Provides a smooth surface for easy flow as blood travels through the heart?
Endocardium
Extension of this membrane that covers flaps (cusps) of the heart valves?
Endocardium
The HEART muscle?
Myocardium
The thickest layer that pumps blood through the vessels?
Myocardium
A serous membrane that forms the thin, outermost layer of the heart wall?
Epicardium
The sac that encloses the heart?
Pericardium
The outermost layer of the pericardium?
Fibrous pericardium
What type of tissue anchors the pericardial layer, thus holding the heart in place?
Connective tissue
The outer layer of the serous membrane?
Parietal layer
The inner layer of the serous membrane?
Visceral layer (epicardium)
The epicardium is also known as?
Visceral layer (epicardium)
What is the main function of the paricardial cavity?
A thin layer of fluid that reduces friction between the Parietal pericardium and the Visceral pericardium
Covers the heart and lines the fibrous pericardium?
Serous pericardium
Cardiac muscle cells have a single?
Nucleus
Modified plasma membranes that firmly attach adjacent cells to each other but allow for rapid transfer of electrical impulses?
Intercalated Disks
The intercalated disks and the________cellular networks allow cardian muscle to contract in a coordinated manner?
Branching
Side of the heart that is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to pulmonary circuit?
Right
Side of the heart that is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the systemic circuit?
Left
The upper chambers of the heart are called?
Atria
The lower chambers of the heart are called?
ventricles
Are mainly blood receiving chambers?
Atria
Are forceful pumps?
Ventricles
Brings deoxygenated blood from the head, chest, and arms?
Superior vena cava
Brings deoxygenated blood from the trunk and the legs?
Inferior vena cava
A thin walled chamber that recieves blood returning from the body tissues?
Right Atrium
Pumps the venous blood from the right atria to the lungs?
Right Ventricle
A vessel that takes blood from the heart to the tissues?
Arteries
The right ventricular connects with?
pulmonary trunk
Divided into the left and right pulmonary arteries?
pulmonary trunk
Recieves blood high in oxygen content from the lungs in pulmonary veins?
Left atrium
The only veins in the body that carry oxygenated blood?
Pulmonary veins
The chamber with the thickest wall?
Left ventricle
Pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body?
Left ventricle
Connects with the aorta via the aortic valve??
L ventricle
The largest artery in the body?
Aorta
The hearts apex is formed by the wall of?
Left ventricle
Separates the two atria?
Interatrial septum
Separates the two ventricles?
Interventricular septum
The septa consists largely of?
myocardium
The entrance valves in the heart are named?
Atrioventricular valves
The exit valves in the heart are named?
Semilunar
Has three cusps, or flaps?
Tricuspid Valve
When this valve is open, blood flows freely from the R atrium into the R ventricle?
Tricuspid Valve
What prevents blood from re-entering the R Atrium?
Tricuspid Valve, because the valve is closed by blood squeezed backward against the cusps
Has two heavy cusps that permit blood to flow freely from the L atrium to the L ventricle?
Bicuspid or mitral valve
Thin fibrous threads that attach R/L AV valves to the muscles in the walls of the ventricles?
Chordae tendineae
Their function is to stabilize the valve flaps when the ventricles contract so that the force of the blood will not push them up into the atria?
Chordea tendineae
A semilunar valve located between the R ventricle and the pulmonary trunk?
Pulmonary Valve
The high pressure in the pulmonary artery is described as?
Back pressure
A semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta?
Aortic valve
Receives blood from the vena cavea and the coronary sinus?
R Atrium
Receives blood from the R atrium and pumps blood into the pulmonary artery?
R Ventricle
The only membraneous layer that contact blood?
Endocardium
The membrane that has its own blood vessels and nutrient source?
Myocardium
The blood vessels in the myocardium provide?
coronary circulation
The main arteries that supply blood to the heart are?
R/L coronary arteries
Valves responsible for systole?
R AV Valve or tricuspid valve and L AV valve or bicuspid
Prevents blood from flowing back up into the R atrium when the R ventricle contrasts?
Tricuspid
Prevents blood from flowing back up into the L atrium when the L ventricle cotnracts?
Bicuspid or mitral
Prevents blood from flowing back into the R ventricle when the R ventricle relaxes?
Pulmonary semi=lunar valve
Valves responsible for diastole?
Pulmonary semi-lunar and Aortic semi-lunar valves
Prevents blood from flowing back into the L ventricle when the L ventricle relaxes?
Aortic semi-lunar valve
A dialated vein that opens into the R atrium near the inferior vena cava?
Coronary sinus
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is called?
systole
The resting period of the cardiac cycle is called?
Diastole
One complete sequence of heart contraction and relaxation is called?
cardiac cycle
A cardiac cycle at REST takes an average of ?
0.8 seconds
The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute is termed?
Cardiac output (CO)
The volume of blood ejected from the ventricle with each beat?
Stroke volume (SV)
The number of times the heart beats per minute?
Heart Rate (HR)
CO=HRx?
SV Stoke volume
Located in the upper wall of the R atrium in a small depression called a sinus?
Sinoatrial node (SA)
This node initiates the heartbeats by generating an action potential at regular intervals?
SA node
Called the pacemaker of the heart?
SA node
This node is located in the interatrial septum at the bottom of the R atrium?
AV node (atriocentricular)
The AV bundle located at the top of the interventricular septum?
The bundle of His
The node that has branches that extend to all parts of the ventricular wall?
Bundle of his
Fibers travel down both sides of the interventricular septum in groups called?
Right and Left bundle branches
Type of fibers travel in a branching network throughout the myocardium of the ventricles, also called conduction myofibers?
Purkinje fibers
Allows the rapid flow of impulses throughout the heart muscle?
intercalated disks
Fibers in the wall of the atrium makeup _________ pathways?
Internodal pathways
What is the conduction pathway of the heart?
SA node, atria contract, AV node, bundle of his, bundle branches, purkinje fibers, ventricular musculature contracts (same time)
A normal rhythm originating at the SA node is termed?
sinus rhythm
What is the name of the parasympathetic nerve that supplies the heart?
cranial nerve X (10)
Sympathetic has what effect on the heart, Parasympathetic has what effect on the heart?
Sympathetic (Flight or fight= increase heart rate) Parasympathetic (decrease heart rate to return to homeostasis)
A regular variation in heart rate caused by changes in the rate of the depth of breathing, a normal phenomenon?
Sinus arrythmia
A beat that comes before the expected normal beat, also called extrasystole?
Premature beat
The Lupp in a heart beat is due to?
AV Valves closing
The Dupp in a heart beat is due to?
Semilunar valves closing
An abnormal sound due to a faulty action of a valve?
Murmur
An abnormal sound caused by any structural change in the heart or vessels connected with the heart is?
organic murmur
Normal sounds of the heart?
Functional murmurs
What system exerts the main influence on the rate and strength of heart contractions?
ANS
Used to record the electrical changes produced as the heart muscle contracts?
EKG or ECG
P waves in the EKG represent what?
Activity in the Atria
QRS and T waves represent what?
Ventricular activity
An instrument used to examine deep structures with x-rays?
Fluoroscope
HDL=
Highdensity lipoprotein
LDL=
Low density lipoprotein
VLDL=
very low density lipoprotein
VLDL is converted to?
LDL
Carry cholesteral from the liver to the tissues?
LDL
Removes cholesteral from the tissues?
HDL
High levels of LDL indicate?
arteries can become clogged, removal of cholesteral by HDL is not sufficient
High levels of HDL indicate?
Effecient removal of arterial plaques
Saturated fats increase what type of cholesterol?
LDL
Unsaturated fats lower what type of cholesterol?
LDL
Consists of sound waves generated at a frquency above the range of sensitivity of the human ear?
Ultrasound
High frequency sound waves are sent to the heart from a small instrument on the surface of the chest known as?
echocardiography
echocardiography is known as?
ultrasound cardiography
Located below left ventricle and aorta?
aortic valve
Located between Right ventricle and pulmonary artery?
Pulmonary valve
First branches of the aorta; fill when heart relaxes?
Coronary arteries
Collects venous blood from the heart and empties into the R atrium?
Coronary sinus