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165 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-tomy
cutting incision (anatomy)
-stasis
stand (homoeostasis)
physi/o
nature, physical (physiology)
-ology
study of
homeo-
same (homeostasis)
ab-
apart, away from (abduction)
inferior-
down (inferior vena cava)
superior-
upward (superior vena cava)
Internally the body is divided into two main cavities, what are they?
dorsal & ventral
Contains cranial and spinal cavities for brain and spinal cord?
Dorsal
Contains thoracic cavity, abdominopelvuc cavity.
Ventral
What are the central regions of the abdomen?
epigastric (epi=upon)
umbilical (navel)
hypogastric (hypo=below, gastric=stomach)
What are the lateral regions called?(lateral=side)
R/L Lumbar (lumbar=side)
R/L Hypochondriac (hypo=below, chondr=rib)
R/L Illiac (illiac=groin)
Divides the abdomen into four regions?
Quadrants
LUQ, LLQ, RUQ, RLQ
Unit of length in the metric system?
Meter (m)
Unit of weight in the metric system?
Gram (GR, g)
Unit of volume in the metric system?
Liter (L, mL)
Tissues function together as?
Organs
Glands that produce hormones belong to the________system?
Endocrine
The eyes are located_________to the nose?
Superior, Cranial
The system that brings needed substances to the body tissue?
Cardiovascular (contains heart)
The system that converts food into a form that body cells can use?
Digestive
The cavity that contains the liver?
Admominal
The cavity that contains the pelvis?
Pelvic
Fluids contained within the cells?
intracellular
A type of feedback in which a given action promotes more of the same is called?
Positive Feedback
(example= labor)
The cavity that contains the mediastinum?
Ventral
sub-(thoracic)
The foot is located_______to the knee?
Inferior/Caudal/Distal
The body system responsible for movement?
Muscular
The body system responsible for support?
Skeletal
The body system responsible for reception of stimuli and control of responses?
Nervous
The body system responsible for production of hormones for regulation of growth, metabolism, reproduction?
Endocrine
The body system responsible for movement of blood for transport?
Cardiovascular
The body system responsible for aiding in circulation, immunity, and absorption of digested fats?
Lymphatic
The body system responsible for the intake of oxygen (O) and release of carbon dioxide (CO2)?
Respiratory
The body system responsible for the intake, breakdown, adn absorption of nutrients?
Digestive
The body system responsible for elimination of waste and water?
Urinary
The body system responsible for production of offspring?
Reproduction
All the chemical reactions needed to sustain life?
Metabolism
Responsible for the breakdown of complex substances into simpler substances; release of energy from nutrients (ATP)?
Catabolism (cata=down)
What is the energy compound of currency of a cell?
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Building of body materials from simple to more complex?
Anabolism (ana=up)
The steady state of body conditions, uses catabolism and anabolsim.
homeostasis
Regulation by return of information within a system?
FEEDBACK
Type of feedback that REVERSES and action to get back to homeostasis?
Negative Feedback
Type of feedback that promotes continued activity, usually there is stimuli?
Positive Feedback
What type of tissue section is perpendicular to long axis?
Cross Section (banana slice (penny shaped)
What type of tissue section is parellel to long axis?
Transverse (banana split type of cut)
What type of tissue section is at an angle?
Oblique (diagnol sandwich cut)
What cavity contains the pancreas and spleen?
Abdominal Cavity
What cavity contains the diaphram?
Thoracic Cavity
What cavity contains the reproductive organs?
Pelvic Cavity
What cavity contains the heart and lungs?
Thoracic Cavity
What cavity contains the mediastinum?
Thoracic (subunit of Ventral)
What cavity contains the stomach and most of the intestines?
Abdominal Cavity
What cavity contains the bladder and rectum?
Pelvic Cavity
What cavity contains the ovaries and testes?
Pelvic Cavity
The science that deals with the composition and properties of matter?
Chemistry
The substances that make up all matter?
Elements
The subunits of an element?
Atom
The smallest complete units of MATTER?
Atom
The center of an atom that contains positively charged electrical particles is?
Nucleous
Protons are negatively charged particles? T/F
False (positively charged)
Particles that are non-charged?
Neutron (neutral)
Negatively charged particles which orbit the nucleous?
Electrons
Which charged particle deterimines how the atom will react chemically?
Electron
What determines the atomic number of an element?
The number of Protons in the nucleous.
The energy field closest to the nucleous is called what?
The First Energy field
What are the total amount of electrons which can occupy the first level?
2
The energy field farthest from the nucleous?
Secondary Energy Field
What determines an energy fields reactivity?
The number of electrons must equal eight 8 to be stable, or non-reactive.
What happens if the energy field does not have eight electrons?
That atom will be reactive.
Automatically drawn to atoms to complete that secondary enery field of 8. (gain electrons more than four (-), lose electrons less than four (+))
The number of electrons lost or gained by atoms of an element in chemical reactions is known as?
Valence (Latin=strength)
The outermost energy field determines the combining properties of an element? T/F
True
Valence Level
What is formed when two or more atoms unite based on their electron structures?
molecule
The smallest subunits of a compound?
Atoms
Substances composed of two or more different elements?
Compound
(CO=carbon monoxide)
What is the most abundant compound in the human body?
Water (H2O)
Water is known as _______solvent?
Universal
(can dissolve many different substances in large amounts)
Salt is an example of a substance that dissolves in water and called "water-loving", or?
Hydrophilic
(hydro=water, philic=attraction)
Fats (butter) that repel and do not dissolve in water are called "water-fearing" or?
Hydrophobic
(hydro=water, phobic=fear)
Water freezes at _____degrees C and boils and______C
0 degree (freeze)
100 degree (boil)
Blends of two or more substances?
Mixtures
A mixture formed when one substance dissolves into another?
Solution
The type of mixture where the component substances cannot be distinguished from each other and they remain evenly distributed throughout is?
Homeogenous
(homeo=same, gen=formation)
The dissolving substance in a salt water solution is called?
Solvent (water in salt water)
The substance dissolved in salt water is known as?
Solute (salt in salt water)
Intravenous solutions is an example of a ________solution?
Aqueous (salt and water)
The mixture that substances do not dissolve into one another and settle-out, needing constant stirring?
Suspension (non-uniform)
Suspension is considered a ___________type of mixture?
heterogenous
(hetero=different, genous=formation)
In a suspension mixture, the particles settle out because?
They are Heavier (larger) than the solvent, forcing the weight to the bottom.
Red blood cells in blood plasma are an example of what type of mixture?
Suspension
Organic compunds where the molecules do not dissolve but remain evenly distributed in the suspending solution?
Colloids
How do the molecules in a colloidal mixture remain eveny distributed?
They have electrical charges that repel each other, and molecules are SMALL enough to stay in suspension.
The proteins in plasma is an example of what type of mixture?
Colloids
Atoms interact to reach a stable number of electrons in the valence or secondary energy level? T/F
True
In chemical reactions, _______ may be transferred from one atom to another or may be shared between atoms?
Electrons
(the # of Electrons in the valence field determines its reactivity)
The type of bond that is formed when electrons are TRANSFERRED/EXCHANGED from one atom to another?
ionic bond (makes atoms into ions by gaining/losing electrons causing a positive /
negative charge attraction.
An atom or group of atoms with a (-) or (+) charge is called?
ion
A positively charged ion is?
Cation (+)
(cat=pro)
NA+
A negatively charged ion is?
Anion (-)
(a=without)
CL-
What is the difference between symbols NA and
NA+?
NA=sodim ATOM (has equal number electrons and proton)
NA+=sodium ION (gave up an electron to another atom, thus causing a positive charge of sodium)
Compounds formed by ionic bonds that release ions when they are in a solution?
Electrolytes
This bonds involves the SHARING of electrons between the atoms in a molecule?
Covalent Bonds
(co=together)
What type of bond occurs when electrical charges are evenly distributed around the atom?
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
What type of bond occurs when one part of a molecule is more negative and one part more positive at any one time?
Polar Covalent Bonds
A chemical substance capable of donating a hydrogen ion (H+) to another substance?
Acid
A chemical substance usually containing hydroxide ion
(OH-) that can accept a hydrogen ion (H+)?
Base/basic/alkaline
PH stands for?
Potentional Hydrogen
(the more hydrogen the more acidic, the less hydrogen the more alkaline)
PH of 7 is considered?
Neutral
(equal amounts of hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion)
PH scale ranges from?
0-14
0=more acidic
14=more alkaline/basic
The balanced chemical state is maintained by chemicals forming a system that prevent sharp changes in hydogen ion (H+) concentration?
BUFFER
Elements that are alike in their number of protons and electrons, but differ in their atomic weight?
Iostopes
(iso=equal)
Disintegrating isotopes that give off rays of atomic particles?
radioactive, radioisotopes
The chemical compounds that characterize all living things and contain carbon (C)?
Organic Compounds
Other chemical compounds that do not contain carbon (C)?
Inorganic Copounds
List the three main types of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
The basic units of _________are simple sugars (glucose)?
Carbohydrates
Glucose a monosaccharide is an example of?
Carbohydrate
Two simple sugars (monosaccharides)link together to form?
Disaccharides
(di=two)
(saccarine=sugar)
Sucrose (table sugar) is an example of what type of carbohydrate unit?
Disaccharide
(glucose + fuctose=sucrose)
Consists of many simple sugars linked together with multiple chains?
Polysaccharides
(poly=many)
(saccharine=sugar)
Glycogen and starch are examples of what type of carbohydrate unit?
Polysaccharides
A class of organic compounds mainly found in the body as fat?
Lipids
(lip=fat)
Fats are the main form in which energy is stored? T/F
True
Simple fats are made up of
____commonly called glycerin in comination with fatty acids?
Glycerol
Triglycerides are an example of?
Simple fats/LIPIDS
Complex lipids (fats) containing phosphorous (P)?
Phospholipids
Phospholipids make up a major part of the membrane around the_____?
Cell
Lipids (fats) that contain carbon (C) atoms?
Steroids
Cortisol, testosterone, estrogen and progesterone are examples of what types of lipids/fats?
Steroids
The only organic compound unit that contains 4 elements: O (oxygen) C (carbon) H (hydrogen) and N (nitrogen)?
Proteins
(lipids and carbs only contain OCH)
Proteins make up pigments that give hair, eyes, and skin its_____?
Color
Building blocks of proteins?
Amino Acids
Which part of the amino acid houses the N (nitrogen)?
The Amino Group
Amino acids link together into a?
Polypeptide
Polypeptide chains can change shape depending the type of protein? T/F
True
polypeptide chain is coiled into a helix and and may be pleated or folded back on itself.
A type of folded protein is called?
Hemoglobin
Proteins that serve as CATALYSTS in the hundreds of reactions that take place within the cell and are essential for metabolism?
Enzymes
Enzymes work only on specific substances or_______?
Substrates
T/F Enzymes take part in the chemical reactions temporarily, and are not used up or changed by the reaction?
True
Lock and Key mechanism is essential for enzymes to match their?
Substrates
The alteration of any protein so that it can no longer function is termed?
Denaturation
Once a new product is formed from the substrates, the enzyme________?
Releases unchanged
hydr/o-
Water
phil
to like
-phobia
excessive fear
hom/o
same
heter/o
different
aqu/o
water
co-
together
(covalent bond)
sacchar/o
sugar
(saccharides)
mon/o-
one
(monossacharides)
di-
two
(dissacharides)
poly-
Many
(polysaccharides)
glyc/o
sugar,glucose, sweet
(glycerol, glycogen)
tri-
three
(triglycerides)
de-
remove
(denaturation)
-ase
suffix used in naming enzymes
(lipase)
The most abundant compound in the body is?
Water
The most abundant element in the body is?
Oxygen
H= hydrogen
atomic #1
1 proton
C= carbon
atomic #6
6 protons
N= nitogen
atomic #7
7 protons
O=oxygen
atomic #8
8 protons