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225 Cards in this Set

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There are three types of muscles?
Smooth, Cardiac, Skeletal
Type of muscle that makes up the walls of the hollow body organs?
Smooth
Type of muscle that moves involuntary and produces wavelike motions of peristalsis?
Smooth
Type of muscle that can regulate the diameter of an opening?
Smooth
Type of muscle that can produce contractions as in the uterus?
Smooth
Type of muscle fibers (cells)that are tapered at each end and have a single, central nucleus?
Smooth
Type of muscle whose cells appear smooth when under a microscope?
Smooth
Smooth Muscle does not contain visible bands or?
Striations
Type of muscle that is involuntary, makes up the wall of the heart and creates the pulsing action of that organ?
Cardiac muscle
Type of muscle whose cells are striated?
Cardiac/Skeletal
Type of muscle that has one nucleus per cell and branching interconnections?
Cardiac Muscle
Type of muscle whose membranes between cells allow electrical impulses to travel rapidly?
Cardiac
These membranes appear as dark lines between cells and are called?
Intercalated disks (inserted between cells)
Electrical impulses that produce contraction of the cardiac muscle are ______generated?
Self (hormones and nerve impulses help to modify)
When viewed under a microscope this type of muscle appears heavily striated?
Skeletal Muscle
Type of muscle whose cells are very long and cylindrical and have multiple nuclei per cell?
Skeletal muscle
Why are the cells in the skeletal muscle multinucleated?
Because it does not divide its cell contents during mitosis
Muscle that is considered voluntary because?
It is under conscious control
Type of muscle tissue that contract and relax rapidly?
Skeletal
Type of muscle tissue that is attached to bone and produces movements at joints?
Skeletal
Makes up 40% of the total weight of the body mass?
Skeletal muscle
Composed of more than 600 individual muscles?
Skeletal
What are the three function of skeletal muscles?
Movement of the skeleton
Maintenance of posture
Generation of heat
A steady partial contraction of muscle is?
muscle tone (keeps the body in position)
Type of muscle that generate most of the heat in the body?
Skeletal
Heat is a natural by product of muscle cell_____?
Metabolism
When muscles are cold, the amount of heat is increased by rapid small contractions we call?
shivering
Muscle fibers arranged in bundles?
Fascicles
Fascicles are held together by?
Connective tissue
Surrounds the individual fibers in the fascicles?
Endomysium
The connective tissue layer around each fascicle?
perimysium
Encases the whole muscle in a tough connective sheath?
Epimysium
Forms the inner most layer of the deep fascia?
Epimysium
The tough fibrous sheath that encloses a muscle?
Deep fascia
Fascicles, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium, and deep fascia form?
Tendons
The band of connective tissue that attaches to a muscle?
Tendon
What type of impulses stimulate skeletal muscle fibers?
Nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord
Nerve impulses traveling away from the CNS?
Motor impulses
Nerve impulses traveling toward the CNS?
Sensory impulses
Neurons (nerve cells) that carry impulses toward the CNS?
Motor neurons
A single neuron and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates comprise?
Motor Unit
Small motor units are used in what type of coordination?
Fine (movement of the eye)
Large motor units are used in what type of coordination?
Broad movements (walking, maintaining posture)
The point at which a nerve fiber contacts a muscle cell?
neuromuscular junction
Where the neurotransmitter is released from the neuron to stimulate the muscle fibers?
neurotransmitter
The type of neurotransmitter released in the neuromuscular junction?
acetylcholine (ACh)
A point of communication between cells?
Synapse
The neuromuscular junction is an example of a?
Synapse
A tiny space between cells across which the neurotransmitter must travel?
synaptic cleft
The neurotransmitter is stored in tiny membranous sacs called?
vesicles
Proteins embedded in the muscle cell membrane, point of attachment for neurotransmitters?
Receptors
The receiving membrane of the muscle cells is known as?
motor end plate
Able to transmit electrical current along the plasma membrane is the property called?
Excitability (both nerves and muscles)
The spreading wave of the electrical current is called?
The action potential
Calls the muscle cells into action?
Action potential
What type of neurotransmitter is involved in the stimulation of skeletal muscle cells?
Acetycholine (ACh)
The capacity of a muscle fiber to undergo shortening and to change its shape, becoming thicker?
Contractility
Type of filament or muscle thread that are thin and light?
Actin
Type of filament or muscle thread that is dark and thick?
Myosin
Alternating bands of actin and myosin gives the skeletal muscle it heavy ?
striation
A contracting subunit of skeletal muscle is?
sarcomere
Consists of bands of actin and myosin filaments?
sarcomere
Point of contact for the neurons to disperse and activate received energy?
Axon (fiber branch)
Paddle like extension of the myosin filament that "latch on" to the actin filaments?
myosin heads
Described as cross-bridges in contraction, with ATP pull the actin fibers together?
Myosin filaments
What are two properties of muscle cells that are needed for response to a stimulus?
Excitability and contractility
Type of muscle that make up the walls of the hollow body organs, blood vessels, and respiratory pathways?
Smooth (non-striated)
Type of muscle that line the wall of the heart, responsible for the pumping action?
Cardiac (striated)
Type of muscle that attaches to bones and produces movement at joints?
Skeletal (heavily striated)
Type of muscle that receives stimulation to contract or relax from the nervous system?
Skeletal
Type of muscle that is automatic without conscious thought?
Smooth, and Cardiac
Type of muscle that is considered to be voluntary?
Skeletal
3 functions of the muscle system?
1. Movement of skeleton
2. Maintenance of Posture
3. Generation of heat
Steady partial contraction of muscle is?
Muscle Tone
One of the two muscle properties that is able to transmit electric current along the cell membrane?
Excitability
One of the two muscle properties that enables the muscles to shorten or to change shape?
Contractility
The muscle that performs the movement, Ex: biceps brachii and triceps brachii?
Prime Mover
The muscle that produces an opposite movement, Ex: one muscle must contract to enable the other to contract?
Antagonist
When muscle metabolism increases during exercise, allows blood to flow easier thru tissue, Ex: weight lifting, running?
Vasodialation
Type of contraction enables tone/tension to remain same but muscle shortens producing movement?
Isotonic Contractions
Type of contraction having no change in muscle length, but increase in muscle tone, Ex: pushing against an immovable force?
Isometric contractions
Palms together pushing is an example of what type of contraction?
Isometric Contraction
Muscles that assist to steady body parts, assist prime movers? (Helping muscle)
Synergists
Type of lever where the Fulcrum is located between the resistance and the effort, Ex: seesaw/scissors?
First Class Lever
Type of lever that has the resistance located between the fulcrum and the effort, Ex: a wheelbarrow?
Second Class Lever
Type of lever where the effort is between the resistance and the fulcrum, Ex: Forceps/tweezers?
Third Class Lever
The muscular systems can be considered a system of ?
Levers
The lever system that is the muscle system, the bone is the?
Lever
The lever system that is the muscle system, the joint is the ?
Fulcrum
The lever system that is the muscle system, the force is applied by?
Muscles
Using the muscles of the back of the neck to lift the head at the joint between the occipital bone of the skull and the atlas, is what lever?
First Class Lever System
Lever/Fulcrum=atlas
Energy=trapezious
Resistance=mandible
Raising your weight to the ball of your foot using your calf muscles is what lever?
Secondary Class Lever
Fulcrum=ball of foot
Energy=gastrocnemius
Resistance=tarsal/metatarsals
Most lever systems in the body are?
Third Class Lever System
A muscle usually inserts over a joint and exerts force between the fulcrum and the resistance (visualize tweezers)?
Third class lever system
Type of lever system where the fulcrum is behind both the point of effort and the weight (resistance) most muscles in body are this?
Third Class
When the biceps brachii flexes the forearm at the elbow, the muscle exerts its force at its insertion on the radius, the weight of the hand and forearm creates the resistance, the F is elbow?
Third class lever system
Name the different characteristics used in naming muscles are?
Location, size, shape, direction of fibers, number of heads, action.
Naming characteristic for the nearby bone, or positions such as lateral, medial, internal, external?
Location
Ex: Vastus Lateralis (lateral thigh muscle)
Naming characteristics for the terms such as maximus, major, minor, longus, or brevis?
Size
Ex: Peroneus longus (lateral calf muscle)
Naming characteristic such as circular (orbicularis), triangular (deltoid), trapezoid (trapezius)?
Shape
Naming characteristice including straight (rectus), or angled (oblique)?
Direction of fibers
Ex: Rectus Abdominis (straight)
Internal oblique (angled)
Naming characteristic for attachement points, as indicated by the suffix (-ceps), triceps, biceps, quadriceps?
Number of heads
bi=2
tri=3
quad=4
Naming characteristic as a flexor, extensor, adductor, abductor, levator?
Action of that muscle
Ex: Flexor Carpi (Flexes the wrist)
Principle muscles of this region of the body are those of facial expression and of mastication (chewing)?
Head muscles
Muscles of facial expression that are ring-shaped around the eyes and the mouth?
Orbicularis Muscles
Oculi=eye
Oris=mouth
The muscle that is the antagonist of the orbicularis oculi and is located in the upper eyelid?
Levator palpebrae superioris
One of the largest muscles of facial expression, forms the flesh part of the cheek?
Buccinator
Facial muscle also known as the trumpeter's muscle?
Buccinator
The antagonists of the ______ _____can produce a smile, sneer, or a grimace?
Orbicularis oris
How many pairs of muscle of mastication are there?
4
These muscles insert on and move the mandible?
muscles of mastication
One of the two largest muscles of mastication located superior to the ear?
Temporalis
One of the two largest muscles of mastication located at the angle of the mandible (jaw)?
Masseter
The smaller first group of muscles of mastication located entirely within the tongue?
Intrinsic muscles
The smaller second group of muscles of mastication that originate outside the tongue?
Extrinsic muscles
These muscles tend to be ribbonlike and extend up and down or obliquely in several layers and in a complex manner?
Neck Muscles
The strong muscle of the neck that extends superiorly from the sternum across the side of the neck to the mastoid process?
Sternocleidomastoid
When the left and right muscles of this muscle work together, they bring the head forward on the chest?
Sternocleidomastoid
Working alone, each muscle tilts and rotates the head as to orient the face toward the side opposite that muscle?
Sternocleidomastoid
The muscle located at the posterior of the neck, where it acts as a synergist and helps hold up the head?
Trapezius
Muscles of this part of the body include muscles that determine the position of the shoulder, anterior and posterior muscles that move the arm, and the muscles that move the forearm?
Muscles of the upper extremities
Location: Encircles the eye
Function: Closes the eye
Orbicularis oculi
Location: posterior of orbit to superior eyelid
Function: Opens eye
Levator palpabrae superioris (Deep muscle) Antagonist
Location: Encircles mouth
Function: Closes lips
Orbicularis oris
Location: Fleshy part of cheek
Function: Flattens cheek, helps ineating, whistling, and blowing wind instruments?
Buccinator
Location: Superior and proximal to ear
Function: Closes mandible
Temporalis
Location: At angle of mandible
Function: Closes mandible
Masseter
Location: Lateral, anterior neck muscle connected to the mastoid process
Function: Flexes head; rotates head toward opposite side from muscle.
Sternocleidomastoid
The position of the shoulder depends to a large extent on the degree of contraction of this muscle?
Trapezius
A triangular muscle that covers the posterior neck and extends across the posterior shoulder to insert on the clavicle and scapula?
Trapezius
This muscles enables one to raise the shoulders and pull them back?
Trapezius
Location: Middle and lower back to humerus
Function: Extends and adducts arm behind back
Latissimus Dorsi
(swimming)
Location: Superior, anterior chest to humerus
Function: Flexes and adducts arm across chest; pulls shoulder forward and downward
Pectoralis Major
Wide muscle of the back and lateral trunk, Forms the posterior portion of the Axilla (armpit)?
Latissimus Dorsi
Arises from the sternum, upper ribs, and clavicle, forms the anterior wall of the armpit?
Pectoralis major
Below axilla on lateral part of chest, moves scapula forward when pushing something?
Sereatus anterior
Location: Below axilla on lateral chest to scapula
Function: Moves scapula forward; aids in raising arm; punching, or reaching forward?
Serratus anterior
Location: Covers shoulder joint, to lateral humerus
Function: Abducts arm
Deltoid
Responsible for the roundness of the upper part of the arm just inferior to shoulder?
Deltoid
Named for its triangular shape which resembles the Greek letter delta?
Deltoid
SITS muscles compose the deep muscle and their tendons of the glenoid cavity (humerus and scapula)?
S=Supraspinatus, I=infraspinatus, T=teres minor, S=subscapularis
Location: Anterior arm along humerus, to radius
Function: Flexes forearm at the elbow and supinates the hand ("flex your muscle")
Biceps Brachii
Location: Lateral forearm from distal end of humerus to distal end of radius
Function: Flexes forearm at elbow
Brachioradialis
Location: Posterior arm, to ulna
Function: Extends forearm to straighten upper extremity
Triceps Brachii
Location: Anterior forearm to hand
Function: Flex Hand
Flexor carpi groups
Location: Posterior forearm to hand
Function: Extends hand
Extensor carpi groups
Location: Anterior forearm to finger
Function: Flex fingers
Flexor digitorum groups
Location: Posterior forearm to fingers
Function: Extends fingers
Extensor digitorum groups
Superficial posterior muscle that Covers lower 1/2 of thoracic region, extends the arm?
Latissimus dorsi
Superficial posterior muscle that Back of arm (boxer's muscle), straightens the elbow?
Triceps brachii
Superficial anterior muscle that forms the front of the arm and inserts on radius?
Biceps brachii
Superficial anterior muscle that covers the shoulder joint?
Deltoid
Superficial anterior muscle, a flexor of the radial side (thumb side) of the forearm?
brachioradialis
Superficial anterior muscle that covers the back of the neck and extends across back of shoulders, known for its shape?
Trapezius
Superficial anterior muscle that flexes and adducts the arm, drawing toward the medial axis of the body, located on either side of the upper part of the chest?
Pectoralis major
Superficial anterior muscle that winds down and inward across the entire thigh and ends on the upper medial surface of the tibia?
Sartorius
Superficial anterior muscle the Anterior thigh ( part of the quadriceps femoris)?
Rectus Femoris
Superficial anterior muscle on lateral side of leg/calf, crosses under the foot, (eversion)?
Peroneus longus of fibialus longus
Superficial anterior muscle on front of calf region inverts the foot
Tibialis anterior
Superficial anterior muscle that is located above and near the ear, raises the lower jaw?
Temporalis
Superficial anterior muscle at angle of lower jaw bone?
Masseter
Superficial posterior muscle that forms the cushiony part of the butt, extends thigh?
Gluteus maximus
Superficial posterior muscle that is a flexor and the large muscle of the upper leg?
Biceps femoris
Largest tendon in the body, distal region of the gastrocnemius?
Achille's tendon
Chief muscle of the calf and leg?
Gastocnemius
Superficial posterior muscle that arises from the upper 2/3 of axilla border of the scapula, rotates arm laterally?
Teres Minor
Superficial posterior muscle that is thick, flattened, and arises from lower third of axillary border of scapula?
Teres Major
Extends the arm in the flexed position and rotates the arm medially?
Teres Major
Muscle of respiration that forms a partition below thoracic cavity and above the abdominal cavity?
Diaphragm
Most important muscle in breathing?
Diaphragm
Fills and attaches to spaces between ribs, contraction of these muscles elevates the rib cage, enlarging the thoracic cavity?
Intercostal muscles
Inserts on the olecranon of the ulna?
Triceps brachii
Location: Dome-shaped partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Function: Dome descends to enlarge thoracic cavity from top to bottom
Diaphragm
Location: Between ribs
Function: Elevate ribs and enlarge thoracic cavity
Intercostals
Location: anterior lateral abdominal wall
Function: Compress abdominal cavity and expel substances from body; flex spinal column
External oblique, Internal oblique, transversus, rectus abdominus (muscle of the abdomen)
Location: Pelvic Floor
Function: Aids in defecation
Levator ani
Location: Group of deep vertical muscles between the sacrum and the skull
Function: Extends vertebral column to produce erect posture
Erector spinae (deep)
Location: Superficial buttock to femur
Function: extends thigh
Gluteus maximus
Location: Deep buttock to femur
Function: Abducts thigh
Gluteus medius
Location: crosses front of hip joint to femur
Function: Flexes thigh
Iliopsoas
Location: Medial thigh to femur
Function: Adducts thigh
Adductor group (adductor longus, adductor magnus)
Location: Winds down thigh ilium to tibia
Function: Flexes thigh and leg (to sit crossed legged)
Sartorius
Location: Pubic bone to medial surface of tibia
Function: Adducts thigh at hip; flexes leg at knee
Gracilis
Location: Anterior thigh to tibia
Function: Extends leg
Quadriceps femoris
Muscles of the Quadriceps?
Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus intermediate
Location: Posterior thigh to tibia and fibula
Function: flexes leg
Hamstring group
Hamstring group consists of 3 muscle?
Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, semitendinosus
Location: Calf of leg, to calcanues, inserting by achilis tendon
Function: Plantar flexes foot at ankle (tiptoeing)
Gastrocnemius
Also known as the belly of the lower leg?
Gastrocnemius
Location: Posterior leg deep to gastrocnemius
Function: Plantar flexes foot at ankle
Soleus
Location: Anterior and lateral shin to foot
Function: Dorsiflexes foot, inverts foot
Tibialis anterior
Location: Lateral leg to foot
Function: Everts foot
Peroneus longus or fibialis longus
Location: Posterior leg and foot to inferior surface of toe bones
Function: Flex toes
Flexor digitorum groups
Location: Anterior surface of leg to superior surface of toe bones
Function: Extends Toe
Extensor digitorum groups
Muscles of the abdomen has three layers that extend?
dorsally, laterally, ventrally
Connective tissues in muscles?
aponeuroses
An important landmark on the abdomen, it extends from the tip of the sternum to the pubic joint (midline meeting of the aponeuroses)?
Linea alba
Location: Quadriceps femoris: anteriorly,center of thigh inserting the patella?
Rectus femoris
Location: Quadriceps femoris: Laterally superficial of thigh?
Vastus medialis, vastus lateralis
Location: Quadriceps femoris; Deeper/not superficial in the center of thigh?
Vastus intermedius
A flat deep muscle to the gastrocnemius, acts as a synergist?
Soleus
troph/o
nutrition nurture (hypertrophy-increase in muscle size)
ton/o
tone tension (isotonic)
metr/o
measur
erg/o
work
From superficial to deep, the correct order of muscle structure is?
Endomysium, perimysium, epimysium, deep fascia
A cord-like structure that attaches a muscle to bone?
Tendon
A bundle of muscle fibers?
Fasicles
A connective tissue layer surrounding muscle fiber bundles?
Perimysium
An involuntary muscle containing intercalated disks?
Cardiac muscle
The immediate source of energy for muscle contraction?
ATP
The protein that interacts with actin to form a cross bridge?
Myosin
The membrane of the muscle that binds with acetylecholine (ACh)?
Motor end plate
The space between the neuron and the muscle cell?
Synaptic cleft
A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulate?
Motor unit
A protein that binds calcium during muscle contraction?
Troponin
The compound that stores oxygen in muscle cells?
Myoglobin
The compound that accumulates during anaerobic metabolism?
Lactic Acid
The muscle attachment joined to a moving part of the body?
Insertion
The muscle attachment joined to a more FIXED part of the body?
Origin
A chest muscle inferior to the axilla that moves the scapula forward?
Serratus anterior
A vertical muscle covering the anterior surface of the abdomen?
Rectus abdominis
When muscles and bones act together in the body as a lever system, the pivot point or fulcrum of the system is the?
Joint
The neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction is?
ACh (acetylcholine)
The storage form of glucose is called?
glycogen